How to format your references using the The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Connerney J (2013) Solar system: Saturn’s ring rain. Nature 496:178–179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Niessing J, and Friedrich RW (2010) Olfactory pattern classification by discrete neuronal network states. Nature 465:47–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen S, Zhou Z, and Greenberg ME (2008) Medicine. Activating a repressor. Science 320:1172–1173.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Pham NH, Ohya S, Tanaka M, Barnes SE, and Maekawa S (2009) Electromotive force and huge magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions. Nature 458:489–492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson DW, and Woodward JL (2010) Release, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fischer X, Daidie A, Eynard B, and Paredes M (eds) (2016) Research in Interactive Design (Vol. 4): Mechanics, Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing, 1st ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Fournier S, Doan VD, and Joseph V (2012) Sex-Specific Effects of Daily Gavage with a Mixed Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Receptor Antagonist on Hypoxic Ventilatory Response in Newborn Rats, in Arterial Chemoreception: From Molecules to Systems (Nurse CA, Gonzalez C, Peers C, and Prabhakar N eds) pp 29–35, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) New smart contact lens could monitor glucose for diabetics, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Higher Education: Tuition Continues to Rise, but Patterns Vary by Institution Type, Enrollment, and Educational Expenditures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Phongprasert AV (2010) MSW students’ perceived knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness of the child welfare system, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Astros Even It Up in Home Run Derby.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Connerney, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Niessing and Friedrich, 2010; Connerney, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Niessing and Friedrich, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Pham et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
ISSN (print)0022-3565
ISSN (online)1521-0103
ScopeMolecular Medicine

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