How to format your references using the The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basri G (2006) Astronomy. Big fields on small stars. Science 311:618–619.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cooper MA, and Shlaes D (2011) Fix the antibiotics pipeline. Nature 472:32.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhou H, Guan H, and Chi B (2007) Record of winter monsoon strength. Nature 450:E10-1; discussion E11.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Aviles-Jimenez F, Vazquez-Jimenez F, Medrano-Guzman R, Mantilla A, and Torres J (2014) Stomach microbiota composition varies between patients with non-atrophic gastritis and patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer. Sci Rep 4:4202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kroese DP, Taimre T, Botev ZI, and Rubinstein RY (2007) Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method: Solutions Manual to Accompany, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ben-Canaan D, Grüner F, and Prodöhl I (eds) (2014) Entangled Histories: The Transcultural Past of Northeast China, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Riewald M (2009) Thrombin-Activated Protein C: Integrated to Regulate Vascular Physiology, in Thrombin: Physiology and Disease (Maragoudakis ME, and Tsopanoglou NE eds) pp 63–80, Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) The Y Chromosome- It’s Not Just Sex, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: FAA Is Making Progress But Important Challenges Remain, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Metcalfe AC (2017) Using Evolution as a Context for Teaching the Nature of Science to Diverse Student Populations: A High School Unit of Curriculum, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly RKR, whose most recent book of poems is ’ ’Not This Island Music, Literature ’ ’ Teaches, and writing at Bard College (1987) I AM NOT A HALFBACK.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Basri, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Basri, 2006; Cooper and Shlaes, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cooper and Shlaes, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Aviles-Jimenez et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
ISSN (print)0022-3565
ISSN (online)1521-0103
ScopeMolecular Medicine

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