How to format your references using the The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reich JG (2002) Embryonic stem cells. The debate in Germany. Science 296:265.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tobias DJ, and Hemminger JC (2008) Chemistry. Getting specific about specific ion effects. Science 319:1197–1198.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson PD, Yund PO, and Lindsay SM (2007) Comment on “Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.” Science 316:53; author reply 53.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Lu M-X, Cao S-S, Du Y-Z, Liu Z-X, Liu P, and Li J (2013) Diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Sci Rep 3:3211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dodson B, Hammett PC, and Klerx R (2014) Probabilistic Design for Optimization and Robustness for Engineers, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Lajtha A, Javitt D, and Kantrowitz J (eds) (2009) Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Schizophrenia, Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Lloyd RV, Scheithauer BW, Horvath E, and Kovacs K (2009) Tumors of the Pituitary Gland, in Surgical Pathology of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Tumors (Khan A ed) pp 27–39, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Nearly 1 Billion People Worldwide Still Smoke Everyday, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Aviation Security: Management Challenges Remain for the Transportation Security Administration’s Secure Flight Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zavarella CA (2008) Computer -based instruction and remedial mathematics: A study of student retention at a Florida community college, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, and Koblin J (2017) Kelly and NBC Quickly Land on the Hot Seat.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reich, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Reich, 2002; Tobias and Hemminger, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tobias and Hemminger, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
ISSN (print)0022-3565
ISSN (online)1521-0103
ScopeMolecular Medicine

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