How to format your references using the The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nakano A (2015) Cell biology: Polarized transport in the Golgi apparatus. Nature 521:427–428.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ims RA, and Andreassen HP (2000) Spatial synchronization of vole population dynamics by predatory birds. Nature 408:194–196.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baird P, Downie J, and Thompson J (2002) Medicine. Clinical trials and industry. Science 297:2211.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Jess DB, Mathioudakis M, Erdélyi R, Crockett PJ, Keenan FP, and Christian DJ (2009) Alfvén waves in the lower solar atmosphere. Science 323:1582–1585.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandra S (2016) Energy, Entropy and Engines, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Felderer M, Piazolo F, Ortner W, Brehm L, and Hof H-J (eds) (2016) Innovations in Enterprise Information Systems Management and Engineering: 4th International Conference, ERP Future 2015 - Research, Munich, Germany, November 16-17, 2015, Revised Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
McDonald B, McGehee S, and Landrum R (2012) Laying Out a Report, in Pro SQL Server 2012 Reporting Services (McGehee S, and Landrum R eds) pp 61–88, Apress, Berkeley, CA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Glorious Gravitational Lens Discovered In The Distant Universe, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) The Case for National Testing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sinha R (2017) An Integrated Development Environment for the Clara Constraint-Programming Language, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M, and Williams T (2014) Huge Leak of Coal Ash Slows at North Carolina Power Plant.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nakano, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ims and Andreassen, 2000; Nakano, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ims and Andreassen, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Jess et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
ISSN (print)0022-3565
ISSN (online)1521-0103
ScopeMolecular Medicine

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