How to format your references using the The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mestel L (2005) Obituary: Hermann Bondi (1919-2005). Nature 437:828.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li L, and Weidner DJ (2008) Effect of phase transitions on compressional-wave velocities in the Earth’s mantle. Nature 454:984–986.
A journal article with 3 authors
Adachi MM, Anantram MP, and Karim KS (2013) Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells. Sci Rep 3:1546.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Liu L, Li Y, Wang R, Yin C, Dong Q, Hing H, Kim C, and Welsh MJ (2007) Drosophila hygrosensation requires the TRP channels water witch and nanchung. Nature 450:294–298.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoppert M (2005) Microscopic Techniques in Biotechnology, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Vries MJ de, Gumaelius L, and Skogh I-B (eds) (2016) Pre-university Engineering Education, SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Eng ML, and Birch JT (2014) Medication Use and Polypharmacy in Older Adults, in Geriatric Urology (Griebling TL ed) pp 55–71, Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) Discovery of More Genes Associated With Alzheimer’s Disease, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Increased Federal Telecommunications System Use by Strengthened Control Over Commercial Toll Calls Could Reduce Costs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexander M (2009) Reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Morone JA (2016) Scarface.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mestel, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Mestel, 2005; Li and Weidner, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Weidner, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
ISSN (print)0022-3565
ISSN (online)1521-0103
ScopeMolecular Medicine

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