How to format your references using the The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo E (2002) Putting politics back into science. Nature 415:4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meharg AA, and Killham K (2003) Environment: A pre-industrial source of dioxins and furans. Nature 421:909–910.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yelshanskaya MV, Li M, and Sobolevsky AI (2014) Structure of an agonist-bound ionotropic glutamate receptor. Science 345:1070–1074.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Boutin S, Wauters LA, McAdam AG, Humphries MM, Tosi G, and Dhondt AA (2006) Anticipatory reproduction and population growth in seed predators. Science 314:1928–1930.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thatcher A (2011) God, Sex, and Gender, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
White WB (ed) (2015) The Caves of Burnsville Cove, Virginia: Fifty Years of Exploration and Science, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Ngah R, Salleh Z, and Mamat WIW (2016) Entrepreneurs’ Innovativeness Based on Emotional Intelligence (EI) Competencies Towards Entrepreneurial Success, in Proceedings of the ASEAN Entrepreneurship Conference 2014 (Mohd Sidek NZ, Ali SM, and Ismail M eds) pp 49–55, Springer, Singapore.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Cassini Just Snapped Some Amazing New Images Of Saturn’s Rings, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Office of Personnel Management: Agency Needs to Improve Outcome Measures to Demonstrate the Value of Its Innovation Lab, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steffan AL (2010) An examination of the correlation between ninth grade mathematics grades and student performance on the mathematics portion of the California high school exit examination, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2004) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Dalai Lama Arrives.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruvkun, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hayes, 2011; Marston, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meharg and Killham, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
ISSN (print)0022-3565
ISSN (online)1521-0103
ScopeMolecular Medicine

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