How to format your references using the The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sherratt DJ (2003) Bacterial chromosome dynamics. Science 301:780–785.
A journal article with 2 authors
Benkovic SJ, and Hammes-Schiffer S (2003) A perspective on enzyme catalysis. Science 301:1196–1202.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee J, Abdeen AA, and Kilian KA (2014) Rewiring mesenchymal stem cell lineage specification by switching the biophysical microenvironment. Sci Rep 4:5188.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
de Lau W, Barker N, Low TY, Koo B-K, Li VSW, Teunissen H, Kujala P, Haegebarth A, Peters PJ, van de Wetering M, Stange DE, van Es JE, Guardavaccaro D, Schasfoort RBM, Mohri Y, Nishimori K, Mohammed S, Heck AJR, and Clevers H (2011) Lgr5 homologues associate with Wnt receptors and mediate R-spondin signalling. Nature 476:293–297.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker HK, and Martin GS (2011) Capital Structure and Corporate Financing Decisions, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Meeks S (2016) The Past and Future City: How Historic Preservation Is Reviving America’s Communities (Murphy KC ed), Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, Washington, DC.
A chapter in an edited book
Nikookar H, and Prasad R (2009) UWB Interference, in Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications (Prasad R ed) pp 67–92, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Ancient Predator Reveals Arthropod Origins, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) USCIS Transformation: Improvements to Performance, Human Capital, and Information Technology Management Needed as Modernization Proceeds, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yackel RJ (2010) Recruitment and retention of nurses in long -term care within the Florida Department of Veterans’ Affairs, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Díaz ME, and Neuman W (2013) U.S. Filmmaker Held in Venezuela Sought to Show Political Divide, Friends Say.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sherratt, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Benkovic and Hammes-Schiffer, 2003; Sherratt, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Benkovic and Hammes-Schiffer, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (de Lau et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
ISSN (print)0022-3565
ISSN (online)1521-0103
ScopeMolecular Medicine

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