How to format your references using the Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muggleton, S. H. (2006). 2020 computing: exceeding human limits. Nature, 440(7083), 409–410.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pardo-de-Santayana, M., & Macía, M. J. (2015). Biodiversity: The benefits of traditional knowledge. Nature, 518(7540), 487–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Snyder, S. A., Gollner, A., & Chiriac, M. I. (2011). Regioselective reactions for programmable resveratrol oligomer synthesis. Nature, 474(7352), 461–466.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hughey, J. R., Gabrielson, P. W., Rohmer, L., Tortolani, J., Silva, M., Miller, K. A., et al. (2014). Minimally destructive sampling of type specimens of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) recovers complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes. Scientific Reports, 4, 5113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harris, C. (2006). Electricity Markets. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Fischer-Hübner, S., Lambrinoudakis, C., & Pernul, G. (Eds.). (2009). Trust, Privacy and Security in Digital Business: 6th International Conference, TrustBus 2009, Linz, Austria, September 3-4, 2009. Proceedings (Vol. 5695). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Güven, Y., & Barkana, D. E. (2011). Evaluation of an Orthopedic Surgical Robotic System Orthoroby on Bone Cadaver. In S.-I. Ao, M. Amouzegar, & B. B. Rieger (Eds.), Intelligent Automation and Systems Engineering (pp. 41–52). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, June 28). This New Shade Of Blue Was Accidentally Discovered By Chemists. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). National Security: Perspectives on Worldwide Threats and Implications for U.S. Forces (No. NSIAD-92-104). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryan, J. D. (2009). Team development social networking and its impact on the encouragement of spiritual leadership (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J. (2017, August 6). An Open Wound for Transgender African-Americans: ‘We’re Considered a Joke.’ New York Times, p. A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Muggleton, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Muggleton, 2006; Pardo-de-Santayana & Macía, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pardo-de-Santayana & Macía, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hughey et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
AbbreviationGeochem. Geophys. Geosyst.
ISSN (online)1525-2027
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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