How to format your references using the Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reimer, P. J. (2001). Archaeology. A new twist in the radiocarbon tale. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5551), 2494–2495.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lowry, A. R., & Pérez-Gussinyé, M. (2011). The role of crustal quartz in controlling Cordilleran deformation. Nature, 471(7338), 353–357.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gorb, E. V., Baum, M. J., & Gorb, S. N. (2013). Development and regeneration ability of the wax coverage in Nepenthes alata pitchers: a cryo-SEM approach. Scientific Reports, 3, 3078.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schneidman, E., Berry, M. J., 2nd, Segev, R., & Bialek, W. (2006). Weak pairwise correlations imply strongly correlated network states in a neural population. Nature, 440(7087), 1007–1012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attoh-Okine, N. O. (2017). Big Data and Differential Privacy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barak, M., & Hacker, M. (Eds.). (2011). Fostering Human Development Through Engineering and Technology Education (Vol. 6). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Donkers, H. H. L. M., van den Herik, H. J., & Uiterwijk, J. W. H. M. (2006). Similarity Pruning in PrOM Search. In H. J. van D. Herik, S.-C. Hsu, T.-S. Hsu, & H. H. L. M. (jeroen) Donkers (Eds.), Advances in Computer Games: 11th International Conference, ACG 2005, Taipei, Taiwan, September 6-9, 2005. Revised Papers (pp. 57–72). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, September 2). Brown Bear Given Beer And Junk Food By Tourists Is Saved From Captivity In Albania. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Air Traffic Control: FAA Should Define the Optimal Advanced Automation System Alternative (No. IMTEC-89-5). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roy, R. (2013). “Jagoron: Awakening” to Gender in Non Governmental Organizations in Contemporary Bengal (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Arango, T. (2017, June 13). Food Poisoning Sickens Hundreds of Iraqis at U.N.-Run Camp. New York Times, p. A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reimer, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lowry & Pérez-Gussinyé, 2011; Reimer, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lowry & Pérez-Gussinyé, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Schneidman et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
AbbreviationGeochem. Geophys. Geosyst.
ISSN (online)1525-2027
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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