How to format your references using the Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, H. (2000). Phytochromes and light signal perception by plants--an emerging synthesis. Nature, 407(6804), 585–591.
A journal article with 2 authors
To, T.-L., & Maheshri, N. (2010). Noise can induce bimodality in positive transcriptional feedback loops without bistability. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5969), 1142–1145.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, J., Balabin, I. A., & Beratan, D. N. (2005). The nature of aqueous tunneling pathways between electron-transfer proteins. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5752), 1311–1313.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bostock, M. G., Hyndman, R. D., Rondenay, S., & Peacock, S. M. (2002). An inverted continental Moho and serpentinization of the forearc mantle. Nature, 417(6888), 536–538.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuzmeski, M. (2009). The Connectors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Harrington, D. (Ed.). (2012). Designs for Clinical Trials: Perspectives on Current Issues (1st ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lőw, P., Molnár, K., & Kriska, G. (2016). Dissection of a Snail (Helix pomatia). In K. Molnár & G. Kriska (Eds.), Atlas of Animal Anatomy and Histology (pp. 49–77). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, June 5). FDA Panel Backs Experimental Drug That Improves Women’s Sex Drives. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Information Technology Investment Management: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Process Maturity (Supersedes AIMD-10.1.23) (No. GAO-04-394G). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wall, J. D. (2017). The Effects of Acute L-Dopa on Brux-like and Masticatory Motor Patterns: EMG Phase Analysis in Rats (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
BRUCE LAMBERT; Linda Saslow contributed reporting for this article. (2005, November 10). County Chief Sets Sights on School Tax. New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Smith, 2000; To & Maheshri, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (To & Maheshri, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Bostock et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
AbbreviationGeochem. Geophys. Geosyst.
ISSN (online)1525-2027
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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