How to format your references using the Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gordon, D. M. (2013). The rewards of restraint in the collective regulation of foraging by harvester ant colonies. Nature, 498(7452), 91–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnston, R. J., Jr, & Desplan, C. (2014). Interchromosomal communication coordinates intrinsically stochastic expression between alleles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6171), 661–665.
A journal article with 3 authors
White, L. E., Coppola, D. M., & Fitzpatrick, D. (2001). The contribution of sensory experience to the maturation of orientation selectivity in ferret visual cortex. Nature, 411(6841), 1049–1052.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Barsbold, R., Currie, P. J., Myhrvold, N. P., Osmolska, H., Tsogtbaatar, K., & Watabe, M. (2000). A pygostyle from a non-avian theropod. Nature, 403(6766), 155–156.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes, D. J. (2008). Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure/Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Earl, L. M., & Timperley, H. (Eds.). (2009). Professional Learning Conversations: Challenges in Using Evidence for Improvement (Vol. 1). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Bruneau, V., & Sambou, D. (2016). Spectral Clusters for Magnetic Exterior Problems. In M. Mantoiu, G. Raikov, & R. Tiedra de Aldecoa (Eds.), Spectral Theory and Mathematical Physics (pp. 57–70). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, July 28). Entire Skeleton Of Fanged Dinosaur Seen By Bombarding It With Powerful X-Rays. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Strategic Bombers: Logistics Decisions Impede B-1B Readiness and Supportability (No. NSIAD-89-129). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rankinen, W. A. (2014). The Sociophonetic and Acoustic Vowel Dynamics of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula English (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L. (2011, May 5). Scouting Report. New York Times, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gordon, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Gordon, 2013; Johnston & Desplan, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnston & Desplan, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Barsbold et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
AbbreviationGeochem. Geophys. Geosyst.
ISSN (online)1525-2027
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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