How to format your references using the New Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bagla, P. 2000. “PALEONTOLOGY: Team Rejects Claim of Early Indian Fossils.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 289 (5483): 1273a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou, Qi, and Doris Bachtrog. 2012. “Sex-Specific Adaptation Drives Early Sex Chromosome Evolution in Drosophila.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337 (6092): 341–345.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chabre, Marc, Richard Cone, and Helen Saibil. 2003. “Biophysics: Is Rhodopsin Dimeric in Native Retinal Rods?” Nature 426 (6962): 30–31; discussion 31.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xiang, Tao, Ling-Ren Wang, Lang Ma, Zhi-Yuan Han, Rui Wang, Chong Cheng, Yi Xia, Hui Qin, and Chang-Sheng Zhao. 2014. “From Commodity Polymers to Functional Polymers.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4604.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samara, Tarek. 2015. ERP and Information Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Goues, Claire Le, and Shin Yoo, eds. 2014. Search-Based Software Engineering: 6th International Symposium, SSBSE 2014, Fortaleza, Brazil, August 26-29, 2014. Proceedings. Vol. 8636. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Morris, Gerald P., and T. Mohanakumar. 2011. “Clinical Evaluation of Alloantibodies in Solid Organ Transplantation.” In Pathology of Solid Organ Transplantation, edited by Helen Liapis and Hanlin L. Wang, 45–56. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Writing.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Sex Cells Exist To Protect Mitochondria From Mutation.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. NASA: Major Management Challenges and Program Risks. GAO-03-849T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prather, Michelle R. 2010. “Pink, Blues, Blacks, and the Union Jack: Mod’s Reinterpretation of Britishness, 1962-1964.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “Astros Run Wild Against Syndergaard and d’Arnaud.” New York Times, March 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bagla 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bagla 2000; Zhou and Bachtrog 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhou and Bachtrog 2012)
  • Three authors: (Chabre, Cone, and Saibil 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xiang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Writing
ISSN (print)1479-0726
ISSN (online)1943-3107
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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