How to format your references using the New Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May, Mike. 2013. “Regenerative Medicine: Rebuilding the Backbone.” Nature 503 (7475): S7-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, Fubin, and Jeffrey V. Ravetch. 2011. “Inhibitory Fcγ Receptor Engagement Drives Adjuvant and Anti-Tumor Activities of Agonistic CD40 Antibodies.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6045): 1030–1034.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, Soren, Yulia Yuzenkova, and Nikolay Zenkin. 2013. “Mechanism of Eukaryotic RNA Polymerase III Transcription Termination.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6140): 1577–1580.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zollikofer, Christoph P. E., Marcia S. Ponce de León, Daniel E. Lieberman, Franck Guy, David Pilbeam, Andossa Likius, Hassane T. Mackaye, Patrick Vignaud, and Michel Brunet. 2005. “Virtual Cranial Reconstruction of Sahelanthropus Tchadensis.” Nature 434 (7034): 755–759.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Medhurst, David. 2008. A Brief and Practical Guide to EU Law. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd.
An edited book
Sachithanadam, Mahesh. 2016. Silica Aerogel Composites: Novel Fabrication Methods. Edited by Sunil Chandrakant Joshi. Engineering Materials. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghosh, Sanjay, Anirudha Joshi, and Sanjay Tripathi. 2013. “Empirical Evaluation of Multimodal Input Interactions.” In Human Interface and the Management of Information. Information and Interaction Design: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part I, edited by Sakae Yamamoto, 37–47. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Writing.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Hundreds Of Bats Are Being Killed By Wind Turbines In The UK Every Month.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Comments on “Airline Competition Enhancement Act of 1992.” T-RCED-92-71. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liggins, James. 2012. “Self-Concept Education as a Motivator of Life Effectiveness.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yee, Vivian. 2014. “Closing on Short Notice, Brooklyn Assisted-Living Home Angers Families.” New York Times, March 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May 2013).
This sentence cites two references (May 2013; Li and Ravetch 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Ravetch 2011)
  • Three authors: (Nielsen, Yuzenkova, and Zenkin 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zollikofer et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Writing
ISSN (print)1479-0726
ISSN (online)1943-3107
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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