How to format your references using the New Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bulinski, J. Chloë. 2006. “Cell Biology. Actin Discrimination.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5784): 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Riskin, Daniel K., and John W. Hermanson. 2005. “Biomechanics: Independent Evolution of Running in Vampire Bats.” Nature 434 (7031): 292.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zachos, James C., Gerald R. Dickens, and Richard E. Zeebe. 2008. “An Early Cenozoic Perspective on Greenhouse Warming and Carbon-Cycle Dynamics.” Nature 451 (7176): 279–283.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rea, N., P. Esposito, R. Turolla, G. L. Israel, S. Zane, L. Stella, S. Mereghetti, et al. 2010. “A Low-Magnetic-Field Soft Gamma Repeater.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6006): 944–946.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grimes, Roger A. 2017. Hacking the Hacker. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Davis, Allen P. 2005. Stormwater Management for Smart Growth. Edited by Richard H. McCuen. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Salah, Abdelkrim, Rachid Outbib, and Jaafar Gaber. 2012. “Simulation and Control of PEMFCS Thermal Behavior.” In PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems: A Multidisciplinary Study of Modelling, Simulation, Fault Diagnosis and Advanced Control, edited by Marta S. Basualdo, Diego Feroldi, and Rachid Outbib, 117–149. Green Energy and Technology. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Writing.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Scientists Reveal What The Perfect Penis Looks Like.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Internet Infrastructure: Challenges in Developing a Public/Private Recovery Plan. GAO-08-212T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caltrider, Catherine S. 2017. “Critical Pedagogy Unit of Ceramics Instruction: Fostering Civic Engagement in California High School Students.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Van Gelder, Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by Lawrence. 2005. “Arts, Briefly; ‘Vagina Monologues’ in Moscow.” New York Times, June 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bulinski 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bulinski 2006; Riskin and Hermanson 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Riskin and Hermanson 2005)
  • Three authors: (Zachos, Dickens, and Zeebe 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Rea et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Writing
ISSN (print)1479-0726
ISSN (online)1943-3107
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

Other styles