How to format your references using the New Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carucci, Daniel. 2004. “Know Thine Enemy.” Nature 430 (7002): 944–945.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saavedra, Serguei, and Daniel B. Stouffer. 2013. “‘Disentangling Nestedness’ Disentangled.” Nature 500 (7463): E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carporzen, Laurent, Stuart A. Gilder, and Rodger J. Hart. 2005. “Palaeomagnetism of the Vredefort Meteorite Crater and Implications for Craters on Mars.” Nature 435 (7039): 198–201.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Morgan, Vin, Marc Delmotte, Tas van Ommen, Jean Jouzel, Jérôme Chappellaz, Suenor Woon, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, and Dominique Raynaud. 2002. “Relative Timing of Deglacial Climate Events in Antarctica and Greenland.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5588): 1862–1864.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman, Norman P. 2012. Troubleshooting Vacuum Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Eckert, Claudia, Sokratis K. Katsikas, and Günther Pernul, eds. 2014. Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business: 11th International Conference, TrustBus 2014, Munich, Germany, September 2-3, 2014. Proceedings. Vol. 8647. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Prusky, Dov, Noam Alkan, Itay Miyara, Shiri Barad, Maayan Davidzon, Ilana Kobiler, Sigal Brown-Horowitz, Amnon Lichter, Amir Sherman, and Robert Fluhr. 2010. “Mechanisms Modulating Postharvest Pathogen Colonization of Decaying Fruits.” In Postharvest Pathology, edited by Dov Prusky and Maria Lodovica Gullino, 43–55. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Writing.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. “One Of Africa’s Last Remaining ‘Giant Tusker’ Elephants Has Been Killed By Poachers.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. National Transportation Safety Board’s Implementation of GAO Recommendations. GAO-12-306R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tercero, Napoleon. 2010. “Characterization and Application of Morpholino Monolayers in Nucleic Acid Diagnostics.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kleinfield, N. R., Richard A. Oppel Jr., and Melissa Eddy. 2016. “Moment in Convention Glare Stirs Parents’ American Life.” New York Times, August 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carucci 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Carucci 2004; Saavedra and Stouffer 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Saavedra and Stouffer 2013)
  • Three authors: (Carporzen, Gilder, and Hart 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Morgan et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Writing
ISSN (print)1479-0726
ISSN (online)1943-3107
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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