How to format your references using the New Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keenan, Trevor F. 2015. “Phenology: Spring Greening in a Warming World.” Nature 526 (7571): 48–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roderick, Michael L., and Graham D. Farquhar. 2002. “The Cause of Decreased Pan Evaporation over the Past 50 Years.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5597): 1410–1411.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haskell, John P., Mark E. Ritchie, and Han Olff. 2002. “Fractal Geometry Predicts Varying Body Size Scaling Relationships for Mammal and Bird Home Ranges.” Nature 418 (6897): 527–530.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fonseca, Dina M., Nusha Keyghobadi, Colin A. Malcolm, Ceylan Mehmet, Francis Schaffner, Motoyoshi Mogi, Robert C. Fleischer, and Richard C. Wilkerson. 2004. “Emerging Vectors in the Culex Pipiens Complex.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5663): 1535–1538.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kovalev, Vladimir A. 2015. Solutions in Lidar Profiling of the Atmosphere. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Proulx, Tom, ed. 2011. Linking Models and Experiments, Volume 2: Proceedings of the 29th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2011. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonacchi, Sara, Damiano Genovese, Riccardo Juris, Ettore Marzocchi, Marco Montalti, Luca Prodi, Enrico Rampazzo, and Nelsi Zaccheroni. 2010. “Energy Transfer in Silica Nanoparticles: An Essential Tool for the Amplification of the Fluorescence Signal.” In Reviews in Fluorescence 2008, edited by Chris D. Geddes, 119–137. Reviews in Fluorescence. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Writing.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Virgin Birth Confirmed in World’s Longest Snake Species.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Surface Transportation: Prospects for Innovation Through Research, Intelligent Transportation Systems, State Infrastructure Banks, and Design-Build Contracting. T-RCED-97-83. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kwon, Yongjae. 2009. “Extreme Value Estimators: Their Long Memory Feature and Forecasting Performances in the U.S. Stock Indexes.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “As Injury Carousel Spins, the Mets Keep Reeling.” New York Times, July 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keenan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Keenan 2015; Roderick and Farquhar 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roderick and Farquhar 2002)
  • Three authors: (Haskell, Ritchie, and Olff 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fonseca et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Writing
ISSN (print)1479-0726
ISSN (online)1943-3107
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

Other styles