How to format your references using the Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Waldrop, M. M. (2011). Physics meets cancer: The disruptor. Nature 474, 20–22.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kleinman, C. L., and Majewski, J. (2012). Comment on “Widespread RNA and DNA sequence differences in the human transcriptome.” Science 335, 1302; author reply 1302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, T.-W., Dai, C.-S., and Hung, K.-C. (2014). High energy density asymmetric supercapacitor based on NiOOH/Ni3S2/3D graphene and Fe3O4/graphene composite electrodes. Sci. Rep. 4, 7274.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
de Boer, W. D. A. M., McGonigle, C., Gregorkiewicz, T., Fujiwara, Y., Tanabe, S., and Stallinga, P. (2014). Optical excitation and external photoluminescence quantum efficiency of Eu3+ in GaN. Sci. Rep. 4, 5235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Labadie, N., Prins, C., and Prodhon, C. (2016). Metaheuristics for Vehicle Routing Problems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Akhmediev, N., and Ankiewicz, A. eds. (2005). Dissipative Solitons. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Csató, G., Dacorogna, B., and Kneuss, O. (2012). “Dimension Reduction,” in The Pullback Equation for Differential Forms, eds. B. Dacorogna and O. Kneuss (Boston, MA: Birkhäuser), 91–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016). Major Improvement To Drug-Free Fertility Treatment. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985). Relocation of the Western Executive Seminar Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitra, A. (2014). Sigma Factor N: A Novel Regulator of Acid Resistance and Locus of Enterocyte Effacement in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2011). Macarons of Her Own. New York Times, NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Waldrop, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Waldrop, 2011; Kleinman and Majewski, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kleinman and Majewski, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (de Boer et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Extreme Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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