How to format your references using the Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins, F. S. (2011). Genome-sequencing anniversary. Faces of the genome. Science 331, 546.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, M., and Wanke, M. C. (2007). Applied physics. Searching for a solid-state terahertz technology. Science 316, 64–65.
A journal article with 3 authors
White, L. E., Coppola, D. M., and Fitzpatrick, D. (2001). The contribution of sensory experience to the maturation of orientation selectivity in ferret visual cortex. Nature 411, 1049–1052.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wright, T. J., Ebinger, C., Biggs, J., Ayele, A., Yirgu, G., Keir, D., et al. (2006). Magma-maintained rift segmentation at continental rupture in the 2005 Afar dyking episode. Nature 442, 291–294.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnett, A. H., and Grice, J. (2011). New Mechanisms in Glucose Control. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Galanakis, I., and Dederichs, P. H. eds. (2005). Half-metallic Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wolpert, D., and Ampadu, P. (2009). “Normal and Reverse Temperature Dependence in Variation-Tolerant Nanoscale Systems with High-k Dielectrics and Metal Gates,” in Nano-Net: Third International ICST Conference, NanoNet 2008, Boston, MA, USA, September 14-16, 2008, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering., ed. M. Cheng (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 14–18.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). Carbon Dioxide Levels Hit Record Of 400ppm. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004). Rail Security: Some Actions Taken to Enhance Passenger and Freight Rail Security, but Significant Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ficchi, G. (2017). A Qualitative Inquiry: Parental Approaches and Expectations, What Role Does Disability Play?

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011). For the Cardinals, a Classic Finish. New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Collins, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Lee and Wanke, 2007; Collins, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Wanke, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Wright et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Extreme Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
ScopeMicrobiology
Microbiology (medical)

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