How to format your references using the Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dede, C. (2009). Immersive interfaces for engagement and learning. Science 323, 66–69.
A journal article with 2 authors
McInerney, J. O., and Pisani, D. (2007). Genetics. Paradigm for life. Science 318, 1390–1391.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gershenfeld, N., Samouhos, S., and Nordman, B. (2010). Engineering. Intelligent infrastructure for energy efficiency. Science 327, 1086–1088.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Guo, X.-G., Ding, J., Xu, H., Xuan, T.-M., Jin, W.-Q., Yin, X., et al. (2014). Comprehensive assessment of the association of WNK4 polymorphisms with hypertension: evidence from a meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 6507.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boyd, R. K., Basic, C., and Bethem, R. A. (2008). Trace Quantitative Analysis by Mass Spectrometry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ferrari, A. (2010). The Spastic Forms of Cerebral Palsy: A Guide to the Assessment of Adaptive Functions. , ed. G. Cioni Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, I. T., Park, C., Hwang, S. O., and Park, C.-M. (2011). “Implementation of Bilinear Pairings over Elliptic Curves with Embedding Degree 24,” in Multimedia, Computer Graphics and Broadcasting: International Conference, MulGraB 2011, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, December 8-10, 2011. Proceedings, Part I Communications in Computer and Information Science., eds. T.-H. Kim, H. Adeli, W. I. Grosky, N. Pissinou, T. K. Shih, E. J. Rothwell, et al. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 37–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). Irish Beach Reappears Within A Few Days After Disappearing 33 Years Ago. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). Federal Research: Interim Report on the Pilot Technology Access Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayes, M. G. (2010). A qualitative case study of cultural competency among Advanced Placement teachers in Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007). From Restaurant Fryers, A Petroleum Alternative. New York Times, 14LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dede, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (McInerney and Pisani, 2007; Dede, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McInerney and Pisani, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Guo et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Extreme Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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