How to format your references using the Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2002). Building Nordic networks. Nature 420, A3, A5, A7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Snook, R. R., and Hosken, D. J. (2004). Sperm death and dumping in Drosophila. Nature 428, 939–941.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu, T., Satoh, T., and Kato, K. (2014). Structural insight into substrate recognition by the endoplasmic reticulum folding-sensor enzyme: crystal structure of third thioredoxin-like domain of UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase. Sci. Rep. 4, 7322.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Norbury, C. C., Basta, S., Donohue, K. B., Tscharke, D. C., Princiotta, M. F., Berglund, P., et al. (2004). CD8+ T cell cross-priming via transfer of proteasome substrates. Science 304, 1318–1321.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robinson, M. D. (2013). An Employer’s and Engineer’s Guide to the FIDIC Conditions of Contract. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Vastola, A. ed. (2015). The Sustainability of Agro-Food and Natural Resource Systems in the Mediterranean Basin. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gratton, E., and vandeVen, M. J. (2006). “Laser Sources for Confocal Microscopy,” in Handbook Of Biological Confocal Microscopy, ed. J. B. Pawley (Boston, MA: Springer US), 80–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Stem Cells Regenerate Monkey Hearts. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982). Methodology Transfer Paper 3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGrew, C. (2008). Living with Diabetes: The Value of Everyday Communication.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2011). Sip, Munch and Cheer. New York Times, NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2002; Snook and Hosken, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Snook and Hosken, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Norbury et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Extreme Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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