How to format your references using the Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dobson, A. P. (2005). Virology. What links bats to emerging infectious diseases? Science 310, 628–629.
A journal article with 2 authors
Purvis, A., and Hector, A. (2000). Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature 405, 212–219.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agulhon, C., Fiacco, T. A., and McCarthy, K. D. (2010). Hippocampal short- and long-term plasticity are not modulated by astrocyte Ca2+ signaling. Science 327, 1250–1254.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Anderson, R. F., Ali, S., Bradtmiller, L. I., Nielsen, S. H. H., Fleisher, M. Q., Anderson, B. E., et al. (2009). Wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2. Science 323, 1443–1448.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blevins, R. D. (2015). Formulas for Dynamics, Acoustics and Vibration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Fourmigué, M., and Ouahab, L. eds. (2009). Conducting and Magnetic Organometallic Molecular Materials. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuczaj, S. A., and Horback, K. M. (2012). “Play and Emotion,” in Emotions of Animals and Humans: Comparative Perspectives The Science of the Mind., eds. S. Watanabe and S. Kuczaj (Tokyo: Springer Japan), 87–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Extreme Microbiology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2012). Wolves Were Domesticated Twice To Become Man’s Best Friend. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). Greater Coordination and a More Effective Policy Needed for International Telecommunications Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matheny, A. L. (2009). Home gardener preferences, perceptions, knowledge and behaviors associated with pest management strategies and information acquisition.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007). Brookhaven Lab Avoids Cuts in Budget. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dobson, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Purvis and Hector, 2000; Dobson, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Purvis and Hector, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Anderson et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Extreme Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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