How to format your references using the The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries (JIDC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barral Y (2010) Cell biology. Septins at the nexus. Science 329: 1289–1290.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller LH, Greenwood B (2002) Malaria--a shadow over Africa. Science 298: 121–122.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang B, Chen J, Corlett RT (2014) Factors influencing repeated seed movements by scatter-hoarding rodents in an alpine forest. Sci Rep 4: 4786.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Langevin Y, Poulet F, Bibring J-P, Gondet B (2005) Sulfates in the north polar region of Mars detected by OMEGA/Mars Express. Science 307: 1584–1586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dixon B, Uddameri V (2015) GIS and Geocomputation for Water Resource Science and Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Longo LD (2016) Wombs with a View: Illustrations of the Gravid Uterus from the Renaissance through the Nineteenth Century. Reynolds LP, editor Cham: Springer International Publishing. XVI, 380 p. 230 illus., 64 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Ansari N, Zhang J (2013) Media Access Control and Resource Allocation in EPON and 10G-EPON. In Zhang J, editor. Media Access Control and Resource Allocation: For Next Generation Passive Optical Networks. New York, NY: Springer. 29–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) 10 Animals With Incredible Superpowers. IFLScience. Available: Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Aviation Security: Screener Training and Performance Measurement Strengthened, but More Work Remains. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khaleghi FK (2017) Evaluating Satisfaction of Participants within the Outreach and Engagement Program of MECCA [Doctoral dissertation]. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart S (2014) Efrem Zimbalist Jr., Actor of Authority, Dies at 95. New York Times: A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
AbbreviationJ. Infect. Dev. Ctries.
ISSN (print)2036-6590
ISSN (online)1972-2680
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases

Other styles