How to format your references using the The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries (JIDC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D (2007) Climate of opportunity. Nature 445: 248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams JH, Friedman WE (2002) Identification of diploid endosperm in an early angiosperm lineage. Nature 415: 522–526.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meier P, Finch A, Evan G (2000) Apoptosis in development. Nature 407: 796–801.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Aynajian P, Keller T, Boeri L, Shapiro SM, Habicht K, et al. (2008) Energy gaps and Kohn anomalies in elemental superconductors. Science 319: 1509–1512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Niemi V, Nyberg K (2006) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Security. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Iuliano E, Pérez EA, editors (2016) Application of Surrogate-based Global Optimization to Aerodynamic Design, 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing. XIV, 72 p. 33 illus., 22 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Molchanov VF (2014) Berezin Transform and a Deformation Decomposition. In Kielanowski P, Bieliavsky P, Odesskii A, Odzijewicz A, Schlichenmaier M, et al., editors. Geometric Methods in Physics: XXXII Workshop, Białowieża, Poland, June 30-July 6, 2013. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 49–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Fossil Skull Suggests Humans and Neanderthals Lived Side by Side in the Middle East. IFLScience. Available: Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Transportation Infrastructure: Highway Pavement Design Guide Is Outdated. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mehta K (2015) An optimized modified booth recoder for efficient design of the add-multiply operator [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2016) Assad’s Lesson From Aleppo: Force Works. New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
AbbreviationJ. Infect. Dev. Ctries.
ISSN (print)2036-6590
ISSN (online)1972-2680
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases

Other styles