How to format your references using the Postgraduate Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Postgraduate Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Trenberth KE. Climatology (communication arising): rural land-use change and climate. Nature 2004;427:213; discussion 214.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Medina-Elizalde M, Lea DW. The mid-Pleistocene transition in the tropical Pacific. Science 2005;310:1009–12.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Roberts JM, Wheeler AJ, Freiwald A. Reefs of the deep: the biology and geology of cold-water coral ecosystems. Science 2006;312:543–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Frazier ME, Johnson GM, Thomassen DG, et al. Realizing the potential of the genome revolution: the genomes to life program. Science 2003;300:290–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Strome TL. Healthcare Analytics for Quality and Performance Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2013.
An edited book
1
Charushin V, Chupakhin O, editors. Metal Free C-H Functionalization of Aromatics: Nucleophilic Displacement of Hydrogen. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Faure G. Matching Modulo Superdevelopments Application to Second-Order Matching. In: Hermann M, Voronkov A, eds. Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning: 13th International Conference, LPAR 2006, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, November 13-17, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2006. 60–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Postgraduate Medical Journal.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Five Cool Ways To Trick Your Brain. IFLScience. 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Slow Progress in Addressing Long-Standing Screener Performance Problems. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Sullivan TJ. Molecular Ecology, Disease Ecology, and Candidate Genes for Pathogen Resistance in the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Bernstein N. 22 Unclaimed Bodies Endured a Grim Detour Before Burial. New York Times. 2016;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePostgraduate Medical Journal
AbbreviationPostgrad. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0032-5473
ISSN (online)1469-0756
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles