How to format your references using the Postgraduate Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Postgraduate Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Lis JT. Imaging Drosophila gene activation and polymerase pausing in vivo. Nature 2007;450:198–202.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Sekkal W, Zaoui A. Nanoscale analysis of the morphology and surface stability of calcium carbonate polymorphs. Sci Rep 2013;3:1587.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Cubitt TS, Perez-Garcia D, Wolf MM. Undecidability of the spectral gap. Nature 2015;528:207–11.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Orlando DA, Lin CY, Bernard A, et al. Global control of cell-cycle transcription by coupled CDK and network oscillators. Nature 2008;453:944–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Roeder T. Managing Project Stakeholders. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2013.
An edited book
1
Gorlewski JA. Theory into Practice: Case Stories for School Leaders. Rotterdam: : SensePublishers 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Berwanger D, Janin D. Automata on Directed Graphs: Edge Versus Vertex Marking. In: Corradini A, Ehrig H, Montanari U, et al., eds. Graph Transformations: Third International Conference, ICGT 2006 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, September 17-23, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2006. 46–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Postgraduate Medical Journal.

Blog post
1
Hale T. Tiny Monkey Causes Nationwide Blackout In Kenya. IFLScience. 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Hispanics’ Schooling: Risk Factors for Dropping Out and Barriers to Resuming Their Education. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Lotrecchiano GR. Social Mechanisms of Team Science: A Descriptive Case Study Using a Multilevel Systems Perspective Employing Reciprocating Structuration Theory. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Brantley B. Young Con Man as Tragic Hero. New York Times. 2017;:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePostgraduate Medical Journal
AbbreviationPostgrad. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0032-5473
ISSN (online)1469-0756
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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