How to format your references using the The Journal of Headache and Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Headache and Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gould J (2015) Meet our prime pollinators. Nature 521:S48-9
A journal article with 2 authors
Buss JA, Agapie T (2016) Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site. Nature 529:72–75
A journal article with 3 authors
Ta VD, Chen R, Sun HD (2013) Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets. Sci Rep 3:1362
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sachs C, Hildebrand M, Volkening S, et al (2001) Spatiotemporal self-organization in a surface reaction: from the atomic to the mesoscopic scale. Science 293:1635–1638

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight JG (2005) Environmental Analysis and Technology for the Refining Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kılıçman A, Srivastava HM, Mursaleen M, Abdul Majid Z (2016) Recent Advances in Mathematical Sciences: Selected Papers from ICREM7 2015. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Gillam LD (2009) Echocardiography Assessment of the Right Ventricle in Acute Coronary Syndrome. In: Herzog E, Chaudhry F (eds) Echocardiography in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. Springer, London, pp 59–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Headache and Pain.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Alert And Ready For Action: Why It’s Time To Ban Energy Drinks For Under-18s. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Financial Literacy and Education Commission: Further Progress Needed to Ensure an Effective National Strategy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson NJ (2017) Queered. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ember S, Grynbaum MM (2017) Where the Future Isn’t So Glossy. New York Times BU1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Headache and Pain
AbbreviationJ. Headache Pain
ISSN (print)1129-2369
ISSN (online)1129-2377
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles