How to format your references using the The Journal of Headache and Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Headache and Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service RF (2000) CHEMISTRY: Crystals Branch Out Into Exotic Shapes. Science 290:1875
A journal article with 2 authors
Roe GH, Baker MB (2007) Why is climate sensitivity so unpredictable? Science 318:629–632
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng N, Bu X, Feng P (2003) Synthetic design of crystalline inorganic chalcogenides exhibiting fast-ion conductivity. Nature 426:428–432
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Trotzky S, Cheinet P, Fölling S, et al (2008) Time-resolved observation and control of superexchange interactions with ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Science 319:295–299

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walker M (2013) Happy-People-Pills For All. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Maldonado JK, Colombi B, Pandya R (2014) Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples in the United States: Impacts, Experiences and Actions. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Leoncini X (2015) Self-Organized Regularity in Long-Range Systems. In: González-Aguilar H, Ugalde E (eds) Nonlinear Dynamics New Directions: Models and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 79–109

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Headache and Pain.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) More Than Thirty Unreported Sources Of Toxic Air Discovered From Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Test and Evaluation: DOD’s Fiscal Year 1989 Test Resource Budget. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Faello JP (2012) Is strong corporate governance associated with informative income smoothing? Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Endrst J (2016) Hugh O’Brian, Dashing Leading Man Remembered for ‘Wyatt Earp,’ Dies at 91. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Headache and Pain
AbbreviationJ. Headache Pain
ISSN (print)1129-2369
ISSN (online)1129-2377
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles