How to format your references using the The Journal of the American Dental Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of the American Dental Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwamb ME. Solar System: Stranded in no-man’s-land. Nature. 2014;507(7493):435-436.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li J, Cheng JX. Direct visualization of de novo lipogenesis in single living cells. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6807.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tobie G, Lunine JI, Sotin C. Episodic outgassing as the origin of atmospheric methane on Titan. Nature. 2006;440(7080):61-64.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bi K, Guo Y, Zhou J, et al. Negative and near zero refraction metamaterials based on permanent magnetic ferrites. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voit B, Haag R, Appelhans D, Welzel PB. Bio- and Multifunctional Polymer Architectures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Bellocchio F. 3D Surface Reconstruction: Multi-Scale Hierarchical Approaches. (Borghese NA, Ferrari S, Piuri V, eds.). Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Desivilya Syna H. Social Divisions, Intergroup Conflict and Diversity. Reflections about Social Conflict and Diversity: the Case of Israeli Organizations. In: Müller A, ed. Re-Thinking Diversity: Multiple Approaches in Theory, Media, Communities, and Managerial Practice. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2016:55-82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of the American Dental Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. Einstein Vs Quantum Mechanics ... And Why He’d Be A Convert Today. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Natural Gas Regulation: Pipeline Transportation Under FERC Order 436. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purdy DW. Identifying Shallow Foundation Failure Modes and Mechanisms Using Surveillance of a Transparent Granular Soil Surrogate. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Bright, Playful, Swiss. New York Times. September 23, 2010:E9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of the American Dental Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Dent. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0002-8177
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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