How to format your references using the The Journal of the American Dental Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of the American Dental Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abraham RT. Cell biology. Making sense of amino acid sensing. Science. 2015;347(6218):128-129.
A journal article with 2 authors
Balskus EP, Jacobsen EN. Asymmetric catalysis of the transannular Diels-Alder reaction. Science. 2007;317(5845):1736-1740.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moreno E, Basler K, Morata G. Cells compete for decapentaplegic survival factor to prevent apoptosis in Drosophila wing development. Nature. 2002;416(6882):755-759.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ulloa Ulloa C, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Beck S, et al. An integrated assessment of the vascular plant species of the Americas. Science. 2017;358(6370):1614-1617.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lehman R, McMillan LG. Options for Volatile Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Wang XS, Cruz I, Delis A, Huang G, eds. Web Information Systems Engineering - WISE 2012: 13th International Conference, Paphos, Cyprus, November 28-30, 2012. Proceedings. Vol 7651. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Baru C, Bhandarkar M, Curino C, et al. Discussion of BigBench: A Proposed Industry Standard Performance Benchmark for Big Data. In: Nambiar R, Poess M, eds. Performance Characterization and Benchmarking. Traditional to Big Data: 6th TPC Technology Conference, TPCTC 2014, Hangzhou, China, September 1--5, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2015:44-63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of the American Dental Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mars: Contamination, Planetary Protection And The Search For Life. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yelkenci S. Algorithmic Music Composition Using Linear Algebra. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Before Attempting To Top Opponents, U.S. Open Players Must Beat Traffic. New York Times. September 2, 2013:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of the American Dental Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Dent. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0002-8177
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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