How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Services Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Services Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Diamond, “Archaeology. Easter Island revisited,” Science, vol. 317, no. 5845, pp. 1692–1694, Sep. 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Qian and E. Winfree, “Scaling up digital circuit computation with DNA strand displacement cascades,” Science, vol. 332, no. 6034, pp. 1196–1201, Jun. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. H. Girvetz, J. A. G. Jaeger, and J. H. Thorne, “Comment on ‘Roadless space of the conterminous United States,’” Science, vol. 318, no. 5854, pp. 1240; author reply 1240, Nov. 2007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
U. Ozcan et al., “Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and restore glucose homeostasis in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes,” Science, vol. 313, no. 5790, pp. 1137–1140, Aug. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Dickenson, F. Freeman, C. L. Mills, S. Sivasubramaniam, and C. Thode, Molecular Pharmacology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
An edited book
F. Duguid, Volunteer Work, Informal Learning and Social Action, vol. 1. Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
R. M. Cavalli, “Integrated Approach for Archaeological Prospection Exploiting Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing,” in Good Practice in Archaeological Diagnostics: Non-invasive Survey of Complex Archaeological Sites, C. Corsi, B. Slapšak, and F. Vermeulen, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2013, pp. 87–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Services Computing.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “The US Army Wants To Design Biodegradable Plant-Growing Bullets,” IFLScience, Jan. 12, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Student Financial Aid: Data Not Fully Utilized to Identify Inappropriately Awarded Loans and Grants,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-HEHS-95-199, Jul. 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. S. Mazyck, “Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh and M. Cooper, “Faltering City Testing Its Vow To Pensioners,” New York Times, p. A1, Aug. 13, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Services Computing
ISSN (print)1939-1374
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems and Management

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