How to format your references using the The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stewart JR. Comment on ‘Buffered Tree Population Changes in a Quaternary Refugium: Evolutionary Implications’. Science. 2003;299(5608):825; author reply 825.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cywes C, Wessels MR. Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling. Nature. 2001;414(6864):648–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshimura K, Onda Y, Fukushima T. Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4514.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Dequéant ML, Glynn E, Gaudenz K, et al.. A complex oscillating network of signaling genes underlies the mouse segmentation clock. Science. 2006;314(5805):1595–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crighton DA, Towl GJ. Psychology in Prisons. Oxford, UK: BPS Blackwell; 2009:
An edited book
Sworder DD. Locating, Classifying and Countering Agile Land Vehicles: With Applications to Command Architectures. 1st ed. 2016.Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:
A chapter in an edited book
Sandberg R, Rollins M. Develop Apps Like a Pro. In: Rollins M editor. The Business of Android Apps Development: Making and Marketing Apps that Succeed on Google Play, Amazon App Store and More. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013: 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume.

Blog post
Luntz S. Five Reasons Bats Really Are Scary, and One Why They Aren’t. IFLScience.2014:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Energy: Problems in the Management and Use of Supercomputers. 1999:

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Genc A. Phase Stability in Metallic Multilayers. 2008:

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. A New Battleground for an Old War: The Internet. New York Times. 2001;1410.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1).
This sentence cites two references 1, 2).
This sentence cites four references 1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
ISSN (print)2424-8355
ISSN (online)2424-8363

Other styles