How to format your references using the The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Banwart S. Save our soils. Nature. 2011;474(7350):151–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knutson BA, Hahn S. Yeast Rrn7 and human TAF1B are TFIIB-related RNA polymerase I general transcription factors. Science. 2011;333(6049):1637–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Melchor RN, Buchwaldt R, Bowring S. A Late Eocene date for Late Triassic bird tracks. Nature. 2013;495(7441):E1-2.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Santander-Syro AF, Copie O, Kondo T, et al.. Two-dimensional electron gas with universal subbands at the surface of SrTiO(3). Nature. 2011;469(7329):189–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunt PJ, Kennedy JE. Financial Derivatives in Theory and Practice: Hunt/Financial Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005:
An edited book
Kotler P. The Quintessence of Strategic Management: What You Really Need to Know to Survive in Business. 2nd ed. 2016.Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016:
A chapter in an edited book
Ishimori H, Kobayashi T, Ohki H, Okada H, Shimizu Y, Tanimoto M. Δ(3N 2). In: Kobayashi T , Ohki H , Okada H , Shimizu Y , & Tanimoto M editors. An Introduction to Non-Abelian Discrete Symmetries for Particle Physicists. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012: 87–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume.

Blog post
Andrews R. House Science Committee Tweets Breitbart Article Denouncing Climate Change. IFLScience.2016:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Weather Forecasting: Important Issues on Automated Weather Processing System Need Resolution. 1993:

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salazar A. Small school, big gains: A case study of urban high school reform. 2012:

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Nassau Coliseum Moves Closer to Renovation. New York Times. 2007;LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1).
This sentence cites two references 1, 2).
This sentence cites four references 1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
ISSN (print)2424-8355
ISSN (online)2424-8363

Other styles