How to format your references using the The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dye JL. Chemistry. Electrons as anions. Science. 2003;301(5633):607–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fry CJ, Peterson CL. Transcription. Unlocking the gates to gene expression. Science. 2002;295(5561):1847–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harvey JA, Corley LS, Strand MR. Competition induces adaptive shifts in caste ratios of a polyembryonic wasp. Nature. 2000;406(6792):183–6.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Goriely A, McVean GAT, Röjmyr M, Ingemarsson B, Wilkie AOM. Evidence for selective advantage of pathogenic FGFR2 mutations in the male germ line. Science. 2003;301(5633):643–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiebe VJ. Drug Therapy for Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015:
An edited book
Lee SG, Peng Z, Zhou X, Moon YS, Unland R, Yoo J. Database Systems for Advanced Applications: 17th International Conference, DASFAA 2012, Busan, South Korea, April 15-19, 2012, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012:
A chapter in an edited book
Agarwal A, Gupta S, Sharma R. Semen Analysis Using Hamilton-Thorne Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer (CASA). In: Agarwal A , Gupta S , & Sharma R editors. Andrological Evaluation of Male Infertility: A Laboratory Guide. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016: 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume.

Blog post
Andrew E. Hospital Patients Are More Likely To Die At Weekends But Seven-Day Rosters Are No Panacea. IFLScience.2015:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: HUD’s Fiscal Year 2011 Expenditure Plan Satisfies Statutory Conditions. 2012:

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
He H. Numerical Simulations of Unsteady Flows in a Pulse Detonation Engine by the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method. 2006:

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bruno J. Watching Coral Reefs Die. New York Times. 2017;SR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1).
This sentence cites two references 1, 2).
This sentence cites four references 1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
ISSN (print)2424-8355
ISSN (online)2424-8363

Other styles