How to format your references using the The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lusis AJ. Atherosclerosis. Nature. 2000;407(6801):233–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bengtson S, Rasmussen B. Paleontology. New and ancient trace makers. Science. 2009;323(5912):346–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Postma E, Griffith SC, Brooks R. Evolutionary genetics: evolution of mate choice in the wild. Nature. 2006;444(7121):E16; discussion E16-7.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Feng Y, Yang J, Liu H, Ye F, Yang J. Selective electrocatalysts toward a prototype of the membraneless direct methanol fuel cell. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3813.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neuber A, Nuttall T. Diagnostic Techniques in Veterinary Dermatology. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017:
An edited book
Friedman Y. Physical Applications of Homogeneous Balls. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2005:
A chapter in an edited book
Kniazev A, Pustilnik S, Tepliakova A, Burenkov A. Metallicities of Galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer Void. In: Ferreras I & Pasquali A editors. Environment and the Formation of Galaxies: 30 years later: Proceedings of Symposium 2 of JENAM 2010. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011: 25–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume.

Blog post
Andrew E. Philae Lander Is Missing. IFLScience.2015:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness of State Automated Systems That Support Federal Human Services Programs. 1999:

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ton NQ. A hierarchical wireless network architecture for building automation and control systems: Implementation and simulation study. 2015:

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Jacoby S. The First Victims of the First Crusade. New York Times. 2015;SR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1).
This sentence cites two references 1, 2).
This sentence cites four references 1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
ISSN (print)2424-8355
ISSN (online)2424-8363

Other styles