How to format your references using the Journal of African Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe, M., 2005. Immunology goes global. Nature 435, 1282–1283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Akiyama, T., Gibson, M.C., 2015. Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing. Nature 527, 375–378.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spurný, P., Oberst, J., Heinlein, D., 2003. Photographic observations of Neuschwanstein, a second meteorite from the orbit of the Príbram chondrite. Nature 423, 151–153.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hindupur, S.K., Colombi, M., Fuhs, S.R., Matter, M.S., Guri, Y., Adam, K., Cornu, M., Piscuoglio, S., Ng, C.K.Y., Betz, C., Liko, D., Quagliata, L., Moes, S., Jenoe, P., Terracciano, L.M., Heim, M.H., Hunter, T., Hall, M.N., 2018. The protein histidine phosphatase LHPP is a tumour suppressor. Nature 555, 678–682.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Renaud, B., Kim, K.-H., Cho, M., 2016. Dynamics of Housing in East Asia. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Aboh, E.O., Essegbey, J. (Eds.), 2010. Topics in Kwa Syntax, Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Fahmy, A.G.-E.-D., El-Ghani, M.M.A., 2011. Palaeo-Ecological Aspects of Farafra Oasis (Egyptian Sabkha) During the Mid-Neolithic Period (7130–6190 BP): A Multivariate Analysis, in: Öztürk, M., Böer, B., Barth, H.-J., Clüsener-Godt, M., Khan, M.A., Breckle, S.-W. (Eds.), Sabkha Ecosystems: Volume III: Africa and Southern Europe, Tasks for Vegetation Science. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 39–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Scientists Are Recreating Some Of The Most Extreme Events That Have Ever Occurred In The Universe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. SSA Services to Employers (No. HEHS-95-38R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hannington, R.L., 2011. Power and display in the court music of Augustus the Strong: The influences affecting the composition of Johann David Heinichens’s sinfonias (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M., 2014. A Racial Divide Remains Over Views of Justice. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watanabe, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Akiyama and Gibson, 2015; Watanabe, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Akiyama and Gibson, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hindupur et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Earth Sciences
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)1464-343X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

Other styles