How to format your references using the Journal of African Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lack, H.W., 2001. Floral tributes. Nature 411, 137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hennessy, E.T., Betley, T.A., 2013. Complex N-heterocycle synthesis via iron-catalyzed, direct C-H bond amination. Science 340, 591–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön, J.H., Kloc, C., Batlogg, B., 2000. Superconductivity at 52 K in hole-doped C60. Nature 408, 549–552.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krause, S., Berbil-Bautista, L., Herzog, G., Bode, M., Wiesendanger, R., 2007. Current-induced magnetization switching with a spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope. Science 317, 1537–1540.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olsen, D., 2015. The Lean Product Playbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bernier, J. (Ed.), 2011. Head and Neck Cancer: Multimodality Management. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kümmerer, B., 2006. Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics, in: Schüermann, M., Franz, U. (Eds.), Quantum Independent Increment Processes II: Structure of Quantum Levy Processes, Classical Probability, and Physics, Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 259–330.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Eight Signs That You’re Smarter Than Average [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. The Need for a Better Trained EDP Auditor (No. 117740). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caldretti, M., 2017. Vocal Pedagogy and the Adolescent Female Singing Voice (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2005. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Submarine Appeal In European Court. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lack, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hennessy and Betley, 2013; Lack, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hennessy and Betley, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Krause et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Earth Sciences
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)1464-343X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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