How to format your references using the Journal of African Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ittekkot, V., 2003. Geochemistry. A new story from the Ol’ Man River. Science 301, 56–58.
A journal article with 2 authors
Royer, S., Paré, D., 2003. Conservation of total synaptic weight through balanced synaptic depression and potentiation. Nature 422, 518–522.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pack, C.C., Berezovskii, V.K., Born, R.T., 2001. Dynamic properties of neurons in cortical area MT in alert and anaesthetized macaque monkeys. Nature 414, 905–908.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Horsley, S.A.R., Hooper, I.R., Mitchell-Thomas, R.C., Quevedo-Teruel, O., 2014. Removing singular refractive indices with sculpted surfaces. Sci. Rep. 4, 4876.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nash, C.E., 2011. The History of Aquaculture. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Ryabko, B., 2016. Compression-Based Methods of Statistical Analysis and Prediction of Time Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Babich, V.M., Kiselev, A.P., 2005. “Nongeometrical Phenomena” in Propagation of Elastic Surface Waves, in: Goldstein, R.V., Maugin, G.A. (Eds.), Surface Waves in Anisotropic and Laminated Bodies and Defects Detection, NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 119–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Cancer Patient Receives 3D-Printed Titanium Ribcage [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1985. SEOG Funds: Information on the Distribution of SEOG Funds to Students (No. PEMD-86-1BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Medina, L.M., 2012. Living with Global Shocks: Examining the Responses of Firms and Governments (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Garner, D., 2017. The Cold War Heats Up Again. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ittekkot, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ittekkot, 2003; Royer and Paré, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Royer and Paré, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Horsley et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Earth Sciences
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)1464-343X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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