How to format your references using the Journal of African Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M., 2010. Structural biology: Crystal-clear images. Nature 465, 824–825.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liberman, N., Trope, Y., 2008. The psychology of transcending the here and now. Science 322, 1201–1205.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chatterjee, A., Mitrović, M., Fortunato, S., 2013. Universality in voting behavior: an empirical analysis. Sci. Rep. 3, 1049.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schopf, J.W., Kudryavtsev, A.B., Agresti, D.G., Wdowiak, T.J., Czaja, A.D., 2002. Laser--Raman imagery of Earth’s earliest fossils. Nature 416, 73–76.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kramer, H., 2013. Angewandte Baudynamik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Lucking, S.E., Maffei, F.A., Tamburro, R.F., Thomas, N.J. (Eds.), 2012. Pediatric Critical Care Study Guide: Text and Review. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Perret, B., 2007. Reorganizing the Activity Cycle: The Stakes in a New Social Contract, in: Pennec, S., Légaré, J. (Eds.), Ages, Generations and the Social Contract: The Demographic Challenges Facing the Welfare State. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 105–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Robot Kills Worker at Volkswagen Plant in Germany [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. District of Columbia Public Schools: Implementation and Sustainability of Reform Efforts Could Benefit From Enhanced Planning (No. GAO-09-902T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rayford, S., 2014. A Qualitative Analysis of Mentoring Experiences and Perceptions of Female Students Enrolled in a Doctoral Program in Education at a Midwestern University (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Film Series. New York Times C21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2010; Liberman and Trope, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liberman and Trope, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Schopf et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Earth Sciences
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)1464-343X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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