How to format your references using the Journal of African Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zuber, M.T., 2001. The crust and mantle of Mars. Nature 412, 220–227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fox, R.C., Scott, C.S., 2005. First evidence of a venom delivery apparatus in extinct mammals. Nature 435, 1091–1093.
A journal article with 3 authors
Butterworth, B., Varma, S., Laurillard, D., 2011. Dyscalculia: from brain to education. Science 332, 1049–1053.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Borgatti, S.P., Mehra, A., Brass, D.J., Labianca, G., 2009. Network analysis in the social sciences. Science 323, 892–895.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alhabeeb, M.J., 2012. Mathematical Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vermeir, K., Regier, J. (Eds.), 2016. Boundaries, Extents and Circulations: Space and Spatiality in Early Modern Natural Philosophy, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hagg, W., Mayer, C., 2016. Water of the Pamir – Potential and Constraints, in: Kreutzmann, H., Watanabe, T. (Eds.), Mapping Transition in the Pamirs: Changing Human-Environmental Landscapes, Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 69–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2015. Can Plants Get Cancer? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Aviation Research: Issues Related to FAA’s Research Activities (No. T-RCED-93-68). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore, A.M., 2010. Assessing the demand for simplified stormwater modeling tools within the design profession to facilitate the adoption of sustainable stormwater practices (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2016. California Town and Its Public Retirees Reel Under $1.6 Million Pension Bill. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zuber, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Fox and Scott, 2005; Zuber, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fox and Scott, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Borgatti et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Earth Sciences
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)1464-343X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

Other styles