How to format your references using the International Journal of Colorectal Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Colorectal Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M (2015) Disease: Closing the door on HIV. Nature 528:S8-9
A journal article with 2 authors
Nakatani H, Yamaguchi Y (2014) Quick concurrent responses to global and local cognitive information underlie intuitive understanding in board-game experts. Sci Rep 4:5894
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang W, Kawamata H, Liu K (2009) CH stretching excitation in the early barrier F + CHD3 reaction inhibits CH bond cleavage. Science 325:303–306
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ganin AY, Takabayashi Y, Jeglic P, et al (2010) Polymorphism control of superconductivity and magnetism in Cs(3)C(60) close to the Mott transition. Nature 466:221–225

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Golding P (2005) Next Generation Wireless Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hallin M, Mason DM, Pfeifer D, Steinebach JG (2015) Mathematical Statistics and Limit Theorems: Festschrift in Honour of Paul Deheuvels. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Pommeranz A, Wiggers P, Brinkman W-P, Jonker CM (2010) Social Acceptance of Negotiation Support Systems. In: Leitner G, Hitz M, Holzinger A (eds) HCI in Work and Learning, Life and Leisure: 6th Symposium of the Workgroup Human-Computer Interaction and Usability Engineering, USAB 2010, Klagenfurt, Austria, November 4-5, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 55–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Colorectal Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Trailer For New Stephen Hawking Biopic Will Make You Cry. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Deferred Maintenance Reporting: Challenges to Implementation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mycroft D (2012) Minorities in leadership and financial performance of their Fortune 500 companies. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Remnick N, Baker AL (2017) Blood Spilled in South Bronx As National Gang Colors Blur. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Colorectal Disease
AbbreviationInt. J. Colorectal Dis.
ISSN (print)0179-1958
ISSN (online)1432-1262

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