How to format your references using the International Journal of Colorectal Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Colorectal Disease (Int J Colorectal Dis). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Abbott A (2000) Space-station airlock to serve as temporary lab. Nature 405:7
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Jung H, Karato S (2001) Water-induced fabric transitions in olivine. Science 293:1460–1463
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Wasan DT, Nikolov AD, Brenner H (2001) Fluid dynamics. Droplets speeding on surfaces. Science 291:605–606
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Rands SA, Cowlishaw G, Pettifor RA, et al (2003) Spontaneous emergence of leaders and followers in foraging pairs. Nature 423:432–434

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Darbyshire P, Hampton D (2012) Hedge Fund Modelling and Analysis Using Excel and VBA. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK
An edited book
1.
Apikyan SA, Diamond DJ (2010) Nuclear Power and Energy Security. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Shivanna KR, Tandon R (2014) Floral Morphology and Sexuality. In: Tandon R (ed) Reproductive Ecology of Flowering Plants: A Manual. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 25–33

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Colorectal Disease.

Blog post
1.
Fang J (2014) New Drug Boosts Nerve Regrowth in Rats With Spinal Cord Injuries. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2015) DHS IT Contracting: Steps Taken to Enhance EAGLE II Small Business Opportunities, but Better Assessment Data Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Garrett D (2013) A quantitative study of STEM goal and role alignment across stakeholder leaders in California: Advocacy for application of a systems solution approach. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg B (2017) Viceroy’s House. New York Times C9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Colorectal Disease
AbbreviationInt. J. Colorectal Dis.
ISSN (print)0179-1958
ISSN (online)1432-1262
ScopeGastroenterology

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