How to format your references using the International Journal of Colorectal Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Colorectal Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Atkinson QD (2011) Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa. Science 332:346–349
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Curtis TP, Sloan WT (2005) Microbiology. Exploring microbial diversity--a vast below. Science 309:1331–1333
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Palm NW, Rosenstein RK, Medzhitov R (2012) Allergic host defences. Nature 484:465–472
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Lamb MP, Dietrich WE, Aciego SM, et al (2008) Formation of Box Canyon, Idaho, by megaflood: implications for seepage erosion on Earth and Mars. Science 320:1067–1070

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Coenen T (2008) Essentials of Corporate Fraud. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Schenk M (2010) Factory Planning Manual: Situation-Driven Production Facility Planning. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Batty EC, Jensen K, Freemont PS (2012) PML Nuclear Bodies and Other Trim-Defined Subcellular Compartments. In: Meroni G (ed) TRIM/RBCC Proteins. Springer, New York, NY, pp 39–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Colorectal Disease.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S (2017) Website That Tracked Fake Science Journals Has Suddenly Vanished. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2006) Gas Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Observations on the Integrity Management Program and 7-Year Reassessment Requirement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Porter J (2010) Closing the classroom door: Denying the political, embracing the moral. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Poniewozik J (2017) An Old Log Learns Some New Tricks. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Colorectal Disease
AbbreviationInt. J. Colorectal Dis.
ISSN (print)0179-1958
ISSN (online)1432-1262
ScopeGastroenterology

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