How to format your references using the International Journal of Colorectal Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Colorectal Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Penner AM (2015) Social Science. Gender inequality in science. Science 347:234–235
A journal article with 2 authors
Vidale JE, Earle PS (2000) Fine-scale heterogeneity in the Earth’s inner core. Nature 404:273–275
A journal article with 3 authors
Schrater PR, Knill DC, Simoncelli EP (2001) Perceiving visual expansion without optic flow. Nature 410:816–819
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Anderson MC, Ochsner KN, Kuhl B, et al (2004) Neural systems underlying the suppression of unwanted memories. Science 303:232–235

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fickelscherer RJ, Chester DL (2012) Optimal Automated Process Fault Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Knapp C, Madden V, Fowler-Kerry S (2012) Pediatric Palliative Care: Global Perspectives. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Guo S (2013) The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Procedures and Liu Hui’s Mathematical Theory. In: Knobloch E, Komatsu H, Liu D (eds) Seki, Founder of Modern Mathematics in Japan: A Commemoration on His Tercentenary. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 63–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Colorectal Disease.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) New Dwarf Planet Discovered At The Edge Of The Solar System. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Nanotechnology: Improved Performance Information Needed for Environmental, Health, and Safety Research. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koller RJ (2014) The nonlinear relationship of individual commitment to organizational change and behavioral support. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L (2010) Museo Drive. New York Times M256

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Colorectal Disease
AbbreviationInt. J. Colorectal Dis.
ISSN (print)0179-1958
ISSN (online)1432-1262

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