How to format your references using the The Journal of Experimental Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Experimental Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Markó, I. E. (2001). Natural product synthesis. The art of total synthesis. Science 294, 1842–1843.
A journal article with 2 authors
Godley, L. A. and Mondragón, A. (2011). Molecular biology. Preference by exclusion. Science 331, 1017–1018.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mang, P. K., Larochelle, S. and Greven, M. (2003). Condensed-matter physics: spurious magnetism in high-T(c) superconductor. Nature 426, 139–40; discussion 140.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Marshall, S. J., Overpeck, J. T., Miller, G. H. and Hu, A. (2006). Simulating Arctic climate warmth and icefield retreat in the last interglaciation. Science 311, 1751–1753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beach, D. (1996). The Responsible Conduct of Research. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Mateo, C. R., Gómez, J., Villalaín, J. and González-Ros, J. M. eds. (2006). Protein-Lipid Interactions: New Approaches and Emerging Concepts. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Alpay, D., Colombo, F. and Sabadini, I. (2016). Finite-dimensional Preliminaries. In Slice Hyperholomorphic Schur Analysis (ed. Colombo, F.) and Sabadini, I.), pp. 51–69. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Experimental Biology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). China To Encourage Its Citizens To Eat 50 Percent Less Meat. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). Paul G. Dembling. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fouts, J. (2014). A mental health outreach program for adolescent gang members and at-risk youth: A grant writing project.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. (2008). Art? Design? You Make the Call. New York Times F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Markó, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Godley and Mondragón, 2011; Markó, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Godley and Mondragón, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Otto-Bliesner et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Experimental Biology
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Biol.
ISSN (print)0022-0949
ISSN (online)1477-9145
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Aquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Insect Science
Molecular Biology

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