How to format your references using the Economic Change and Restructuring citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Change and Restructuring. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moorcock M (2000) Through the shaving mirror. Nature 407:455
A journal article with 2 authors
Bao J, Bawendi MG (2015) A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer. Nature 523:67–70
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu Z, Cheng Y, Schwingenschlögl U (2014) Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state. Sci Rep 4:4025
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ogden SK, Fei DL, Schilling NS, et al (2008) G protein Galphai functions immediately downstream of Smoothened in Hedgehog signalling. Nature 456:967–970

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burger M, Graeber B, Schindlmayr G (2014) Managing Energy Risk. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Han I (2016) Social Innovation and Business in Taiwan. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Barga R, Fontama V, Tok WH (2015) Integration with Python. In: Fontama V, Tok WH (eds) Predictive Analytics with Microsoft Azure Machine Learning. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 103–130

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Change and Restructuring.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) A Planetary Collision May Have Brought Carbon To Earth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Intercity Passenger Rail: Recording Clearer Reasons for Awards Decisions Would Improve Otherwise Good Grantmaking Practices. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woods BA (2006) The Perceived Efficacy of an Empowerment Model of Youth Development among Vermont Educational Leaders. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K (1999) Children’s Books. New York Times 737

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moorcock 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Moorcock 2000; Bao and Bawendi 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bao and Bawendi 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Ogden et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Change and Restructuring
AbbreviationEcon. Change Restructuring
ISSN (print)1573-9414
ISSN (online)1574-0277
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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