How to format your references using the Economic Change and Restructuring citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Change and Restructuring. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shonkoff JP (2011) Protecting brains, not simply stimulating minds. Science 333:982–983
A journal article with 2 authors
Murray J, Segall P (2002) Testing time-predictable earthquake recurrence by direct measurement of strain accumulation and release. Nature 419:287–291
A journal article with 3 authors
Turi L, Sheu W-S, Rossky PJ (2005) Characterization of excess electrons in water-cluster anions by quantum simulations. Science 309:914–917
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gurnett DA, Persoon AM, Kurth WS, et al (2007) The variable rotation period of the inner region of Saturn’s plasma disk. Science 316:442–445

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raymond SU (2013) Recession, Recovery, and Renewal: Long-Term Nonprofit Strategies for Rapid Economic Change. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Durán N, Guterres SS, Alves OL (eds) (2014) Nanotoxicology: Materials, Methodologies, and Assessments. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Dovey J, Furrow A (2012) Objective-C Language Features. In: Furrow A (ed) Beginning Objective-C. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 75–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Change and Restructuring.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Science Of Doping And How Cheating Athletes Pass Drug Tests. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Customs Service Modernization: Architecture Must Be Complete and Enforced to Effectively Build and Maintain Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felsburg DF (2008) The business of evangelism: A phenomenological study of frustration and attrition among Christian evangelists. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Haberman M (2017) In Interview, Bannon Contradicts Trump on North Korea, and Lashes Out at Rivals. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shonkoff 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Murray and Segall 2002; Shonkoff 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murray and Segall 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Gurnett et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Change and Restructuring
AbbreviationEcon. Change Restructuring
ISSN (print)1573-9414
ISSN (online)1574-0277
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

Other styles