How to format your references using the Economic Change and Restructuring citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Change and Restructuring. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wales DJ (2001) A microscopic basis for the global appearance of energy landscapes. Science 293:2067–2070
A journal article with 2 authors
Bisley JW, Goldberg ME (2003) Neuronal activity in the lateral intraparietal area and spatial attention. Science 299:81–86
A journal article with 3 authors
Ziegler AD, Fox JM, Xu J (2009) Agriculture. The rubber juggernaut. Science 324:1024–1025
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Guiso L, Monte F, Sapienza P, Zingales L (2008) Diversity. Culture, gender, and math. Science 320:1164–1165

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sigee DC (2005) Freshwater Microbiology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Yen EH, Leonard AR (eds) (2015) Nutrition in Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for Clinicians, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Lewis MA, Petrovskii SV, Potts JR (2016) Long-Distance Dispersal and Spread. In: Petrovskii SV, Potts JR (eds) The Mathematics Behind Biological Invasions. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 155–193

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Change and Restructuring.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Tiny Teeth In Corkscrew Poop Show Ancient Sharks Were Cannibalizing Their Young. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) NASA Property: Improving Management of Government Equipment Provided to Contractors. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green JL (2012) The leadership practices of executive women of local government. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M (2017) Michael Friedman, Co-Creator of ‘Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson,’ Dies at 41. New York Times B7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wales 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Wales 2001; Bisley and Goldberg 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bisley and Goldberg 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Guiso et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Change and Restructuring
AbbreviationEcon. Change Restructuring
ISSN (print)1573-9414
ISSN (online)1574-0277
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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