How to format your references using the Economic Change and Restructuring citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Change and Restructuring. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batty M (2013) Sociology. A theory of city size. Science 340:1418–1419
A journal article with 2 authors
Swinnen J, Squicciarini P (2012) Global food supply. Mixed messages on prices and food security. Science 335:405–406
A journal article with 3 authors
Exadaktylos F, Espín AM, Brañas-Garza P (2013) Experimental subjects are not different. Sci Rep 3:1213
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dejean A, Solano PJ, Ayroles J, et al (2005) Insect behaviour: arboreal ants build traps to capture prey. Nature 434:973

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kroese DP, Taimre T, Botev ZI, Rubinstein RY (2007) Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method: Solutions Manual to Accompany. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kumar BM, Nair PKR (eds) (2006) Tropical Homegardens: A Time-Tested Example of Sustainable Agroforestry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Pande A, Zambreno J (2013) Polymorphic Wavelet Transform. In: Zambreno J (ed) Embedded Multimedia Security Systems: Algorithms and Architectures. Springer, London, pp 33–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Change and Restructuring.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) A Single Gene Can Cause Autism, Study Finds. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Federal R&D Laboratories. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wirtz Y (2017) Strain Variation between the Monterey and Sisquoc Formations, Southern Santa Maria Basin, California, USA: Implications for Structural Assessment of Fold and Thrust Belts. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2017) Another Failed Festival Puts Industry on Edge. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Batty 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Swinnen and Squicciarini 2012; Batty 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Swinnen and Squicciarini 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Dejean et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Change and Restructuring
AbbreviationEcon. Change Restructuring
ISSN (print)1573-9414
ISSN (online)1574-0277
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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