How to format your references using the Economic Change and Restructuring citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Change and Restructuring. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell K (2003) Inspiration from architecture: building a better scientific rapport. Nature 424:858–859
A journal article with 2 authors
Hekimi S, Guarente L (2003) Genetics and the specificity of the aging process. Science 299:1351–1354
A journal article with 3 authors
Stutzmann N, Friend RH, Sirringhaus H (2003) Self-aligned, vertical-channel, polymer field-effect transistors. Science 299:1881–1884
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen X, Liu X, Jia X, et al (2013) Network characteristic analysis of ADR-related proteins and identification of ADR-ADR associations. Sci Rep 3:1744

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choudhry M, Landuyt G (2010) The Future of Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kenaan H, Ferber I (eds) (2011) Philosophy’s Moods: The Affective Grounds of Thinking. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Snarskii AA, Bezsudnov IV, Sevryukov VA, et al (2016) Effective Conductivity of Percolation Media. In: Bezsudnov IV, Sevryukov VA, Morozovskiy A, Malinsky J (eds) Transport Processes in Macroscopically Disordered Media: From Mean Field Theory to Percolation. Springer, New York, NY, pp 47–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Change and Restructuring.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Researchers Image Wave-Particle Duality Light For The First Time Ever. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Analysis of “Florida’s Fair Share.” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Egan GC (2015) Understanding the reaction mechanism of aluminum nanocomposite thermites. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Currie A, Dixon H, Hay G (2010) Auto Sales Defy The Statistics. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hekimi and Guarente 2003; Powell 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hekimi and Guarente 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Change and Restructuring
AbbreviationEcon. Change Restructuring
ISSN (print)1573-9414
ISSN (online)1574-0277
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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