How to format your references using the Economic Change and Restructuring citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Change and Restructuring. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham S (2003) Genomic mergers. Nature 425:213
A journal article with 2 authors
Deng XH, Matsumoto H (2001) Rapid magnetic reconnection in the Earth’s magnetosphere mediated by whistler waves. Nature 410:557–560
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng R-L, Zhang H, Jiang W-L (2014) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G>A polymorphism and risk of rheumatic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep 4:4731
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Maeshima Y, Sudhakar A, Lively JC, et al (2002) Tumstatin, an endothelial cell-specific inhibitor of protein synthesis. Science 295:140–143

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perrin V (2013) MRI Techniques. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Arai T, Harino H, Ohji M, Langston WJ (eds) (2009) Ecotoxicology of Antifouling Biocides. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Burau V, Dahl HM (2013) Trajectories of Change in Danish Long Term Care Policies—Reproduction by Adaptation through Top-Down and Bottom-Up Reforms. In: Ranci C, Pavolini E (eds) Reforms in Long-Term Care Policies in Europe: Investigating Institutional Change and Social Impacts. Springer, New York, NY, pp 79–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Change and Restructuring.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) How Do Balancing Rocks Survive Earthquakes? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Airlift Requirements: Commercial Freighters Can Help Meet Requirements at Greatly Reduced Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mavromati A (2012) One Foot In. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Glanz J, Sanger DE (2017) Trump, Who Pledged to Overhaul Nuclear Arsenal, Now Faces Higher Costs. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buckingham 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Deng and Matsumoto 2001; Buckingham 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deng and Matsumoto 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Maeshima et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Change and Restructuring
AbbreviationEcon. Change Restructuring
ISSN (print)1573-9414
ISSN (online)1574-0277
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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