How to format your references using the Hong Kong Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reis e Sousa C. Immunology. Eating in to avoid infection. Science. 2007;315(5817):1376-1377.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaplinsky NJ, Barton MK. Plant biology. Plant acupuncture: sticking PINs in the right places. Science. 2004;306(5697):822-823.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinisch KM, Nibert ML, Harrison SC. Structure of the reovirus core at 3.6 A resolution. Nature. 2000;404(6781):960-967.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yorozu S, Wong A, Fischer BJ, et al. Distinct sensory representations of wind and near-field sound in the Drosophila brain. Nature. 2009;458(7235):201-205.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kizer G. Digital Microwave Communication. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Judd CM. Beginning Groovy and Grails: From Novice to Professional. (Nusairat JF, Shingler J, eds.). Apress; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Maâtouk O, Ayadi W, Bouziri H, Duval B. Evolutionary Algorithm Based on New Crossover for the Biclustering of Gene Expression Data. In: Comin M, Käll L, Marchiori E, Ngom A, Rajapakse J, eds. Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics: 9th IAPR International Conference, PRIB 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, August 21-23, 2014. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2014:48-59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Sun Is Eerily Quiet, And Scientists Aren’t Sure Why. IFLScience. Published July 23, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Urban Mass Transportation Administration’s Enforcement of Buy America Provisions of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tovar B. A Drug and Alcohol Education and Prevention Program for Hispanic Families: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. The World Is Watching. New York Times. June 10, 2012:SP11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Medical Journal
AbbreviationHong Kong Med. J.
ISSN (print)1024-2708
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles