How to format your references using the Hong Kong Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Benton MJ. The Red Queen and the Court Jester: species diversity and the role of biotic and abiotic factors through time. Science. 2009;323(5915):728-732.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Meyer JR, Kassen R. The effects of competition and predation on diversification in a model adaptive radiation. Nature. 2007;446(7134):432-435.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Yoshizawa M, Tamura M, Fujita M. Diels-alder in aqueous molecular hosts: unusual regioselectivity and efficient catalysis. Science. 2006;312(5771):251-254.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Smith PA, Koehler MFT, Girgis HS, et al. Optimized arylomycins are a new class of Gram-negative antibiotics. Nature. 2018;561(7722):189-194.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lalanne C. Random Vibration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Cairns D. The Philosophy of Edmund Husserl. Vol 207. (Embree L, ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Zhang Y, Pang J. Distance and Friendship: A Distance-Based Model for Link Prediction in Social Networks. In: Cheng R, Cui B, Zhang Z, Cai R, Xu J, eds. Web Technologies and Applications: 17th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2015, Guangzhou, China, September 18-20, 2015, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:55-66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Medical Journal.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. What We Learned At Behavior 2015. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. FAA Work Forces: Important Decisions Affecting Staff Use and Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Sommer A. How Experiences Influence and Inform School Principals’ Actions to Further Develop Teachers’ Instructional Practice. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Lyall S. No Nobel Ceremony for Dylan. He’s Busy. New York Times. November 17, 2016:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Medical Journal
AbbreviationHong Kong Med. J.
ISSN (print)1024-2708
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles