How to format your references using the Hong Kong Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinberg S. Scientist: four golden lessons. Nature. 2003;426(6965):389.
A journal article with 2 authors
Machlis GE, McNutt MK. Disasters. Scenario-building for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Science. 2010;329(5995):1018-1019.
A journal article with 3 authors
Inoue M, Tanimoto M, Oda Y. The role of ear stone size in hair cell acoustic sensory transduction. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2114.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Donoghue PCJ, Bengtson S, Dong X-P, et al. Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy of fossil embryos. Nature. 2006;442(7103):680-683.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu S, Liu Y. Modeling and Simulation for Microelectronic Packaging Assembly. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
McGee RW, ed. Taxation and Public Finance in Transition and Developing Economies. Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Shmaliy Y. LTI Systems in the Time Domain. In: Shmaliy Y, ed. Continuous-Time Systems. Springer Netherlands; 2007:153-237.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D. Why China And Europe Should Form The World’s Most Powerful ‘Climate Bloc.’ IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Trust and Other Earmarked Funds: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang D. Event detection in sensor networks. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Where Surrealism Makes Life Bearable. New York Times. December 26, 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Medical Journal
AbbreviationHong Kong Med. J.
ISSN (print)1024-2708
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles