How to format your references using the Hong Kong Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alley RB. Geochemistry. “C”ing Arctic climate with black ice. Science. 2007;317(5843):1333-1334.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lubchenco J, Grorud-Colvert K. OCEAN. Making waves: The science and politics of ocean protection. Science. 2015;350(6259):382-383.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön JH, Kloc C, Batlogg B. High-temperature superconductivity in lattice-expanded C60. Science. 2001;293(5539):2432-2434.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Enninga J, Levy DE, Blobel G, Fontoura BMA. Role of nucleoporin induction in releasing an mRNA nuclear export block. Science. 2002;295(5559):1523-1525.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaisford S, Saunders M. Essentials of Pharmaceutical Preformulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Millsap RE, Bolt DM, van der Ark LA, Wang W-C, eds. Quantitative Psychology Research: The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society. Vol 89. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakayama T. Biology, Diversity and Ecology of Free-Living Heterotrophic Flagellates. In: Ohtsuka S, Suzaki T, Horiguchi T, Suzuki N, Not F, eds. Marine Protists: Diversity and Dynamics. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015:63-87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Medical Journal.

Blog post
Taub B. Ancient Brazilian Graves Reveal Macabre Funerary Rituals. IFLScience. Published November 29, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Services to Indian Head Start Grantees Under a Special Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim M. Adult ESL Korean readers’ responses about their reading in L1 Korean and L2 English. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Oscar Health and Humana Team Up in Small-Firm Venture. New York Times. July 12, 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Medical Journal
AbbreviationHong Kong Med. J.
ISSN (print)1024-2708
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles