How to format your references using the The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Maille P. Microbiology: Fungus against the wall. Nature. 2015 May 14;521(7551):168–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bull JJ, Parrish CR. Microbiology. A binding contract for anthrax. Science. 2002 Jul 12;297(5579):201–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Borgia G, Coyle BJ, Keagy J. Comment on “Illusions promote mating success in great bowerbirds.” Science. 2012 Jul 20;337(6092):292; author reply 292.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jonietz F, Mühlbauer S, Pfleiderer C, Neubauer A, Münzer W, Bauer A, et al. Spin transfer torques in MnSi at ultralow current densities. Science. 2010 Dec 17;330(6011):1648–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Provost JJ, Colabroy KL, Kelly BS, Wallert MA. The Science of Cooking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Chaires JB, Graves D, editors. Quadruplex Nucleic Acids. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. X, 278 p. 119 illus., 43 illus. in color. (Topics in Current Chemistry; vol. 330).
A chapter in an edited book
Harrabi I, Louati T, Lévesque M, Maier M. Testbed Design and Co-simulation of PEV Coordination Schemes Over Integrated Fiber-Wireless Smart Grid Communications Infrastructures. In: Rajakaruna S, Shahnia F, Ghosh A, editors. Plug In Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids: Integration Techniques. Singapore: Springer; 2015. p. 99–128. (Power Systems).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
Luntz S. Why Vultures Don’t Get Food Poisoning [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on the Federal Communications Commission’s Implementation of Section 254(h) of the Communications Act of 1934]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Feb. Report No.: B-278820.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flores AT. Children, incarcerated mothers and the child welfare system: A systematic review of the literature [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kasich J. Welfare Is Still Broken. New York Times. 2016 Aug 22;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Cardiovasc. Surg. (Torino)
ISSN (print)0021-9509
ISSN (online)1827-191X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles