How to format your references using the The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferrari R. Ocean science. A frontal challenge for climate models. Science. 2011 Apr 15;332(6027):316–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allmann S, Baldwin IT. Insects betray themselves in nature to predators by rapid isomerization of green leaf volatiles. Science. 2010 Aug 27;329(5995):1075–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mulligan CJ, Kitchen A, Miyamoto MM. Comment on “Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals.” Science. 2006 Dec 1;314(5804):1390.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Manning SW, Ramsey CB, Kutschera W, Higham T, Kromer B, Steier P, et al. Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C. Science. 2006 Apr 28;312(5773):565–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bécherrawy T. Electromagnetism. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Larheim TA. Maxillofacial Imaging. Westesson P-L, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. XVI, 440 p. 1450 illus., 87 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Kroupa P, Weidner C, Pflamm-Altenburg J, Thies I, Dabringhausen J, Marks M, et al. The Stellar and Sub-Stellar Initial Mass Function of Simple and Composite Populations. In: Oswalt TD, Gilmore G, editors. Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems: Volume 5: Galactic Structure and Stellar Populations. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 115–242.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
Evans K. 8 Amazing Tricks That Seem To Break The Laws Of Science. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Designation of Their Ames Facility to Be Lead Center for Helicopter Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Nov. Report No.: LCD-77-301.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayvaz MD. Generating Creativity in Teams: An Exploratory Case Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Again Faces Draft Issue As He Returns to New Hampshire. New York Times. 1992 Sep 27;120.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Cardiovasc. Surg. (Torino)
ISSN (print)0021-9509
ISSN (online)1827-191X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles