How to format your references using the The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowler PJ. Portraits of science. Climb Chimborazo and see the world. Science. 2002 Oct 4;298(5591):63–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldfine H, Vance DE. Obituary: Konrad E. Bloch (1912-2000). Nature. 2001 Feb 15;409(6822):779.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moyen JF, Stevens G, Kisters A. Record of mid-Archaean subduction from metamorphism in the Barberton terrain, South Africa. Nature. 2006 Aug 3;442(7102):559–62.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vellai T, Takacs-Vellai K, Zhang Y, Kovacs AL, Orosz L, Müller F. Genetics: influence of TOR kinase on lifespan in C. elegans. Nature. 2003 Dec 11;426(6967):620.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahamed SV. Intelligent Internet Knowledge Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Stieltjes B. Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Introduction and Atlas. Brunner RM, Fritzsche KH, Laun FB, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. VII, 380 p. 279 illus., 271 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Busso EP. Multiscale Approaches: From the Nanomechanics to the Micromechanics. In: Silberschmidt VV, editor. Computational and Experimental Mechanics of Advanced Materials. Vienna: Springer; 2010. p. 141–65. (Maier G, Salençon J, Schneider W, Schrefler B, Serafini P, editors. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Robots And AI Could Soon Have Feelings, Hopes And Rights… We Must Prepare For The Reckoning [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Special Education: State and Local-Imposed Requirements Complicate Federal Efforts to Reduce Administrative Burden. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Jan. Report No.: GAO-16-25.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wells RE. Managers’ affective expressions as determinants of employee responses to change: Valence, inappropriateness and authenticity [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. On Contraception, It’s Church Over State. New York Times. 2017 Oct 11;SR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Cardiovasc. Surg. (Torino)
ISSN (print)0021-9509
ISSN (online)1827-191X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles