How to format your references using the The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman N. Inferring cellular networks using probabilistic graphical models. Science. 2004 Feb 6;303(5659):799–805.
A journal article with 2 authors
Macosko EZ, McCarroll SA. Genetics. Our fallen genomes. Science. 2013 Nov 1;342(6158):564–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grubb PJ, Coomes DA, Metcalfe DJ. Comment on “A brief history of seed size.” Science. 2005 Nov 4;310(5749):783; author reply 783.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alam MS, Kuo JL, Ernst PB, Derr-Castillo V, Pereira M, Gaines D, et al. Ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73) regulates host inflammatory responses and exacerbates murine salmonellosis. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 27;4:4486.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ming D, Glasser D, Hildebrandt D, Glasser B, Metzer M. Attainable Region Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Adney WS, McMillan JD, Mielenz J, Klasson KT, editors. Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held April 29–May 2, 2007, in Denver, Colorado. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008. (ABAB Symposium, Part A: Enzyme Engineering and Biotechnology).
A chapter in an edited book
Stanta G. Tissue Heterogeneity as a Pre-analytical Source of Variability. In: Dietel M, Wittekind C, Bussolati G, Winterfeld M von, editors. Pre-Analytics of Pathological Specimens in Oncology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 35–43. (Recent Results in Cancer Research).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
Fang J. Peekaboo! Dwarf Goats Have Object Permanence Too. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Access to Space: Issues Associated With DOD’s Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Jun. Report No.: NSIAD-97-130.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lemay M. Understanding the mechanism of panel attrition [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Suffolk and Nassau Fight Voting Machine Change. New York Times. 2006 Oct 15;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Cardiovasc. Surg. (Torino)
ISSN (print)0021-9509
ISSN (online)1827-191X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles