How to format your references using the Diabetes Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morris M. Astronomy. Galactic prominences on the rise. Science. 2006 Oct 6;314(5796):70–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poulet JFA, Hedwig B. A corollary discharge maintains auditory sensitivity during sound production. Nature. 2002 Aug 22;418(6900):872–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ledingham KWD, McKenna P, Singhal RP. Applications for nuclear phenomena generated by ultra-intense lasers. Science. 2003 May 16;300(5622):1107–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
MacLennan CA, Gilchrist JJ, Gordon MA, Cunningham AF, Cobbold M, Goodall M, et al. Dysregulated humoral immunity to nontyphoidal Salmonella in HIV-infected African adults. Science. 2010 Apr 23;328(5977):508–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes P, Davies M. Sub-Contracting under the JCT 2005 Forms. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Baert AL, editor. Encyclopedia of Diagnostic Imaging. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. 1334 illus. eReference.
A chapter in an edited book
Roberts J. John Roberts on Hugo F. Sonnenschein. In: Jackson MO, McLennan A, editors. Foundations in Microeconomic Theory: A Volume in Honor of Hugo F Sonnenschein. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 33–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Care.

Blog post
Davis J. Electric Eels Found To Leap Out Of Water To Shock Predators [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology and Government Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Jan. Report No.: 138539.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watterson T. Changes in Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Social Support for Middle School Students Using the AFIT App as a Supplement to Instruction in a Physical Education Class [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LaFORGIA M, Eder S. That Neighbor Who Grouses? Now President. New York Times. 2017 May 6;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Care
AbbreviationDiabetes Care
ISSN (print)0149-5992
ISSN (online)1935-5548
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles