How to format your references using the Diabetes Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reinitz J. Turing centenary: Pattern formation. Nature. 2012 Feb 22;482(7386):464.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rajagopalan H, Lengauer C. Aneuploidy and cancer. Nature. 2004 Nov 18;432(7015):338–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rowe TB, Macrini TE, Luo Z-X. Fossil evidence on origin of the mammalian brain. Science. 2011 May 20;332(6032):955–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Repp J, Meyer G, Olsson FE, Persson M. Controlling the charge state of individual gold adatoms. Science. 2004 Jul 23;305(5683):493–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Epstein M. The Elements of Continuum Biomechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Manderson L, Smith W, Tomlinson M, editors. Flows of Faith: Religious Reach and Community in Asia and the Pacific. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. XVI, 240 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Conklin M. Project Entity Matching across FLOSS Repositories. In: Feller J, Fitzgerald B, Scacchi W, Sillitti A, editors. Open Source Development, Adoption and Innovation: IFIP Working Group 213 on Open Source Software, June 11–14, 2007, Limerick, Ireland. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. p. 45–57. (IFIP — The International Federation for Information Processing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Care.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Immunotherapy: Training The Body To Fight Cancer. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Truck Safety: Effectiveness of Motor Carriers Office Hampered by Data Problems and Slow Progress on Implementing Safety Initiatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-99-122.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McPherson CA. Characterization of the neurogenic microenvironment in the mouse hippocampus following chemical-induced neuronal injury [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Last Regional Governor’s Election. New York Times. 2005 Jan 25;A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Care
AbbreviationDiabetes Care
ISSN (print)0149-5992
ISSN (online)1935-5548
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles