How to format your references using the Diabetes Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Macilwain C. University cuts show science is far from saved. Nature. 2011 Jan 13;469(7329):133.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kozlova T, Thummel CS. Essential roles for ecdysone signaling during Drosophila mid-embryonic development. Science. 2003 Sep 26;301(5641):1911–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Wild G, Gardner A, West SA. Adaptation and the evolution of parasite virulence in a connected world. Nature. 2009 Jun 18;459(7249):983–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Myong S, Bruno MM, Pyle AM, Ha T. Spring-loaded mechanism of DNA unwinding by hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase. Science. 2007 Jul 27;317(5837):513–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Dubil R. Financial Engineering and Arbitrage in the Financial Markets. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Perales FJ, Kittler J, editors. Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects: 9th International Conference, AMDO 2016, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XII, 219 p. 91 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9756).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Aubry J-M, Xian X. Fast Implicit Simulation of Flexible Trees. In: Ochiai H, Anjyo K, editors. Mathematical Progress in Expressive Image Synthesis II: Extended and Selected Results from the Symposium MEIS2014. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015. p. 47–61. (Mathematics for Industry).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Care.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Antarctic’s Gigantic Ice Crack Is Fast Approaching Crunch Time [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/antarctics-gigantic-ice-crack-is-fast-approaching-crunch-time/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Need To Remove More Low-Cost, Low-Usage Items From Inventories. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Mar. Report No.: B-133118.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Emale JM. An examination of how conglomerates impact small-medium enterprises in their relationship [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Smith R, Chan S. Fatal Concert Blast Is Called Terror. New York Times. 2017 May 22;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Care
AbbreviationDiabetes Care
ISSN (print)0149-5992
ISSN (online)1935-5548
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles