How to format your references using the Diabetes Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Libby P. Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Nature. 2002;420(6917):868–74.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helms JA, Schneider RA. Cranial skeletal biology. Nature. 2003 May 15;423(6937):326–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Le Galliard JF, Clobert J, Ferrière R. Physical performance and Darwinian fitness in lizards. Nature. 2004 Nov 25;432(7016):502–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Perry AL, Low PJ, Ellis JR, Reynolds JD. Climate change and distribution shifts in marine fishes. Science. 2005 Jun 24;308(5730):1912–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bates J, Gallon C, Bocci M, Walker S, Taylor T. Converged Multimedia Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Wei R, editor. Mobile Media, Political Participation, and Civic Activism in Asia: Private Chat to Public Communication. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. XV, 236 p. 14 illus., 9 illus. in color. (Mobile Communication in Asia: Local Insights, Global Implications).
A chapter in an edited book
Butka P, Pócsová J, Pócs J. A Proposal of the Information Retrieval System Based on the Generalized One-Sided Concept Lattices. In: Precup RE, Kovács S, Preitl S, Petriu EM, editors. Applied Computational Intelligence in Engineering and Information Technology: Revised and Selected Papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 59–70. (Topics in Intelligent Engineering and Informatics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Care.

Blog post
Carpineti C. This Parasite Infested Snail Looks Like Something From A Horror Movie [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intellectual Property: Agencies Progress in Implementing Recent Legislation, but Enhancements Could Improve Future Plans. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Oct. Report No.: GAO-11-39.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowry LA. Creative Aging in Senior Centers: A Grounded Theory Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. Watching Neo-Nazis in Virginia, From Germany. New York Times. 2017 Aug 16;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Care
AbbreviationDiabetes Care
ISSN (print)0149-5992
ISSN (online)1935-5548
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles