How to format your references using the Diabetes Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinstein JN. Biochemistry. A postgenomic visual icon. Science. 2008 Mar 28;319(5871):1772–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cochella L, Green R. An active role for tRNA in decoding beyond codon:anticodon pairing. Science. 2005 May 20;308(5725):1178–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saper CB, Scammell TE, Lu J. Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature. 2005 Oct 27;437(7063):1257–63.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cho JY, Tse MK, Holmes D, Maleczka RE Jr, Smith MR 3rd. Remarkably selective iridium catalysts for the elaboration of aromatic C-H bonds. Science. 2002 Jan 11;295(5553):305–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krichen S, Chaouachi J. Graph-Related Optimization and Decision Support Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Datta R, Deb K, editors. Evolutionary Constrained Optimization. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015. XVI, 319 p. 111 illus., 39 illus. in color. (Infosys Science Foundation Series).
A chapter in an edited book
Goubault-Larrecq J, Jouannaud JP. The Blossom of Finite Semantic Trees. In: Voronkov A, Weidenbach C, editors. Programming Logics: Essays in Memory of Harald Ganzinger. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 90–122. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Care.

Blog post
Carpineti A. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016. An Electric Wind Has Stripped Venus Of Its Oceans.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Laboratory Research: State of Tennessee Exempts DOE’s Spallation Neutron Source Project From Sales and Use Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Mar. Report No.: RCED-00-99R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spindel SA. Evaluation of optical sensor platforms for multiplexed detection of proteins [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vanderhart D, Pérez-Peña R, Schmidt MS. In Note Left Behind, Gunman ‘Did Not Like His Lot in Life,’ Officials Say. New York Times. 2015 Oct 3;A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Care
AbbreviationDiabetes Care
ISSN (print)0149-5992
ISSN (online)1935-5548
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles