How to format your references using the Diabetes Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V. Crunch time for multiple-gene tests. Nature. 2007 Jan 25;445(7126):354–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baxter GW, Olafsen JS. Kinetics: Gaussian statistics in granular gases. Nature. 2003 Oct 16;425(6959):680.
A journal article with 3 authors
Su W, Bagshaw CR, Burley GA. Addressable and unidirectional energy transfer along a DNA three-way junction programmed by pyrrole-imidazole polyamides. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1883.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang L, Wang Y, Xu Y, Lei H, Zhao Y, Li H, et al. Metabonomic analysis reveals efficient ameliorating effects of acupoint stimulations on the menopause-caused alterations in mammalian metabolism. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 10;4:3641.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cahill TH. Low Impact Development and Sustainable Stormwater Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Cicognani M, Colombini F, Del Santo D, editors. Studies in Phase Space Analysis with Applications to PDEs. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. XVII, 379 p. (Progress in Nonlinear Differential Equations and Their Applications; vol. 84).
A chapter in an edited book
De Koninck P, De Weerdt J. A Stability Assessment Framework for Process Discovery Techniques. In: La Rosa M, Loos P, Pastor O, editors. Business Process Management: 14th International Conference, BPM 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, September 18-22, 2016 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 57–72. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Care.

Blog post
Evans K. Round The World Trip Planned For First Boat Powered Entirely By Green Energy [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Homeland Security: Efforts Under Way to Develop Enterprise Architecture, but Much Work Remains. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Aug. Report No.: GAO-04-777.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Banks GM. The revolution will not be gender-ized [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Viktor Astafyev, Who Wrote of Rural Russia, Dies at 77. New York Times. 2001 Dec 3;F6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Care
AbbreviationDiabetes Care
ISSN (print)0149-5992
ISSN (online)1935-5548
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles