How to format your references using the The HUGO Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The HUGO Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gumbsch P (2003) Materials science. Modeling strain hardening the hard way. Science 301:1857–1858
A journal article with 2 authors
Okubo CH, McEwen AS (2007) Fracture-controlled paleo-fluid flow in Candor Chasma, Mars. Science 315:983–985
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyron-Holtz EG, Ghosh MC, Rouault TA (2004) Mammalian tissue oxygen levels modulate iron-regulatory protein activities in vivo. Science 306:2087–2090
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Xu X, Tan Q, Wang J, et al (2007) A gigantic bird-like dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of China. Nature 447:844–847

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair TH (2016) Energy Production Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Heymann WR (ed) (2008) Thyroid Disorders with Cutaneous Manifestations. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Moore PB (2011) How Small is Small? In: Luisi PL, Stano P (eds) The Minimal Cell: The Biophysics of Cell Compartment and the Origin of Cell Functionality. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 65–71

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The HUGO Journal.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Coming Soon: Tabletop Fog Screens for 3D Interactions. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Protest of Proposal Rejection. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ashrafzadeh MH (2008) Provision of community services for the mentally challenged population in Iran. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnard A, Gordon MR (2016) Aid Convoy Is Hit in Syria as Cease-Fire Falters and Bombings Resume. New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gumbsch 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gumbsch 2003; Okubo and McEwen 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Okubo and McEwen 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe HUGO Journal
ISSN (print)1877-6566

Other styles