How to format your references using the The HUGO Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The HUGO Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ciesla FJ (2008) Planetary science. Observing our origins. Science 319:1488–1489
A journal article with 2 authors
Hatzor A, Weiss P (2001) Molecular rulers for scaling down nanostructures. Science 291:1019–1020
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang C, Schwieters CD, Clore GM (2007) Open-to-closed transition in apo maltose-binding protein observed by paramagnetic NMR. Nature 449:1078–1082
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Xu W, Liu Y, Wang S, et al (2002) Cytoprotective role of Ca2+- activated K+ channels in the cardiac inner mitochondrial membrane. Science 298:1029–1033

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chakrabarty P (2012) A Guide to Academia. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Hawksworth DL, Bull AT (eds) (2008) Biodiversity and Conservation in Europe. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Burgher F, Mathieu L, Blomet J, et al (2014) Damaged Skin. In: Maibach HI, Hall AH (eds) Chemical Skin Injury: Mechanisms, Prevention, Decontamination, Treatment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 73–196

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The HUGO Journal.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) First Results From NASA’s Twins Experiment Surprise Scientists. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1968) Opportunity For Savings In Space Programs By Reevaluating Needs Before Buying Facilities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hung H-C (2006) Allocation of Jobs and Resources to Work Centers. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2006) Justices Weigh Limits on Punitive Damages. New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ciesla 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Hatzor and Weiss 2001; Ciesla 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hatzor and Weiss 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe HUGO Journal
ISSN (print)1877-6566

Other styles