How to format your references using the The HUGO Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The HUGO Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fewell JH (2003) Social insect networks. Science 301:1867–1870
A journal article with 2 authors
Burlini L, Di Toro G (2008) Geophysics. Volcanic symphony in the lab. Science 322:207–208
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang C, Shim M, Guyot-Sionnest P (2001) Electrochromic nanocrystal quantum dots. Science 291:2390–2392
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Poccia N, Campi G, Ricci A, et al (2014) Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin. Sci Rep 4:5430

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith P (2016) Structural Design of Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Jezierski J (2006) Homotopy Methods in Topological Fixed and Periodic Points Theory. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Bouziane H, Currle-Linde N, Perez C, Resch M (2008) Analysis of Component Model Extensions to Support the GriCoL Language. In: Fragopoulou P, Getov V (eds) Making Grids Work: Proceedings of the CoreGRID Workshop on Programming Models Grid and P2P System Architecture Grid Systems, Tools and Environments 12-13 June 2007, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 45–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The HUGO Journal.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Monkeys Should Be Able To Talk, If Only They Had The Brains To Do So. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Older Driver Safety: Survey of States on Their Implementation of Federal Highway Administration Recommendations and Guidelines (GAO-07-517SP), an E-supplement to GAO-07-413. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malekian A (2009) Combinatorial problems in online advertising. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2016) Sci-Fi Western on HBO? Yes, It’s Dark. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fewell 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Fewell 2003; Burlini and Di Toro 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burlini and Di Toro 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Poccia et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe HUGO Journal
ISSN (print)1877-6566

Other styles