How to format your references using the The HUGO Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The HUGO Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Porto JV (2013) Physics. Cold-atom magnetism. Science 340:1297–1298
A journal article with 2 authors
Ji H, Zweibel E (2015) Plasma physics. Understanding particle acceleration in astrophysical plasmas. Science 347:944–945
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia S, Noma K-I, Grewal SIS (2004) RNAi-independent heterochromatin nucleation by the stress-activated ATF/CREB family proteins. Science 304:1971–1976
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tonello F, Seveso M, Marin O, et al (2002) Screening inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor. Nature 418:386

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Teodorescu P, Stănescu N-D, Pandrea N (2013) Numerical Analysis with Applications in Mechanics and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Beigl M, Christiansen H, Roth-Berghofer TR, et al (eds) (2011) Modeling and Using Context: 7th International and Interdisciplinary Conference, CONTEXT 2011, Karlsruhe, Germany, September 26-30, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Halper J (2014) Proteoglycans and Diseases of Soft Tissues. In: Halper J (ed) Progress in Heritable Soft Connective Tissue Diseases. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 49–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The HUGO Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) ‘Alternative Facts’: A Psychiatrist’s Guide To Twisted Relationships To Truth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) DOD Schools: Funding and Operating Alternatives for Education of Dependents. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Minick V (2010) Educators’ Beliefs About and Approaches to the Evaluation of Student Writing. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) I Am Another You. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Porto 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Porto 2013; Ji and Zweibel 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ji and Zweibel 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Tonello et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe HUGO Journal
ISSN (print)1877-6566

Other styles