How to format your references using the The HUGO Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The HUGO Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson NJ (2011) Structural biology: a platform for copper pumps. Nature 475:41–42
A journal article with 2 authors
Münck E, Bominaar EL (2008) Chemistry. Bringing stability to highly reduced iron-sulfur clusters. Science 321:1452–1453
A journal article with 3 authors
Moran NA, McLaughlin HJ, Sorek R (2009) The dynamics and time scale of ongoing genomic erosion in symbiotic bacteria. Science 323:379–382
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bauer J, Chen K, Hiltbunner A, et al (2000) The major protein import receptor of plastids is essential for chloroplast biogenesis. Nature 403:203–207

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Michaud T (2017) Innovation, Between Science and Science Fiction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Schättler H (2012) Geometric Optimal Control: Theory, Methods and Examples. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Taylor IJ, Harrison AB (2009) Distributed Security Techniques. In: Taylor IJ, Harrison AB (eds) From P2P and Grids to Services on the Web: Evolving Distributed Communities. Springer, London, pp 61–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The HUGO Journal.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2014) Watch An Octopus Hide Itself In A Coconut. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Urban Transportation: Challenges to Widespread Deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fonfa SL (2008) The impact of increased security on the employment options and lives of people with severe disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2007) Storefront Takeout, From Scratch. New York Times NJ6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robinson 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Münck and Bominaar 2008; Robinson 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Münck and Bominaar 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Bauer et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe HUGO Journal
ISSN (print)1877-6566

Other styles