How to format your references using the The HUGO Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The HUGO Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hashmi ASK (2012) Chemistry. Sub-nanosized gold catalysts. Science 338:1434
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapiro B, Hofreiter M (2014) A paleogenomic perspective on evolution and gene function: new insights from ancient DNA. Science 343:1236573
A journal article with 3 authors
Muchnik L, Aral S, Taylor SJ (2013) Social influence bias: a randomized experiment. Science 341:647–651
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yamashiro C, Sasaki K, Yabuta Y, et al (2018) Generation of human oogonia from induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Science 362:356–360

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Girling P (2013) Operational Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Dalang RC, Dozzi M, Russo F (eds) (2013) Seminar on Stochastic Analysis, Random Fields and Applications VII: Centro Stefano Franscini, Ascona, May 2011. Springer, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Martínez L, Rodriguez RM, Herrera F (2015) Decision Making in Heterogeneous Context: 2-Tuple Linguistic Based Approaches. In: Rodriguez RM, Herrera F (eds) The 2-tuple Linguistic Model: Computing with Words in Decision Making. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 51–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The HUGO Journal.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Sea Level Rise Has Been Miscalculated. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017) High Risk: Actions Needed to Address Serious Weaknesses in Federal Management of Programs Serving Indian Tribes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuan J (2008) Membrane Protein Insertion in Bacteria by the YidC and Sec Pathway. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) Justices’ Vote in Death Case Is Close Again, but Differing. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hashmi 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hashmi 2012; Shapiro and Hofreiter 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shapiro and Hofreiter 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamashiro et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe HUGO Journal
ISSN (print)1877-6566

Other styles