How to format your references using the Journal of Combinatorial Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Combinatorial Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Field CB (2001) Global change. Sharing the garden. Science 294:2490–2491
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim H-J, Benner SA (2010) Comment on “The silicate-mediated formose reaction: bottom-up synthesis of sugar silicates.” Science 329:902; author reply 902
A journal article with 3 authors
Ho VM, Lee J-A, Martin KC (2011) The cell biology of synaptic plasticity. Science 334:623–628
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jost JD, Home JP, Amini JM, et al (2009) Entangled mechanical oscillators. Nature 459:683–685

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacGowan C (2011) The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Gontero P, Kirby RS, Carson CC III (eds) (2013) Problem Based Urology. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Korres DS (2013) Fractures of the Axis. In: Korres DS (ed) The Axis Vertebra. Springer, Milano, pp 41–43

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Combinatorial Optimization.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Hacking Photosynthesis Yields Turbocharged Crops. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Family Planning: Federal Funds Provided to Planned Parenthood Organizations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez NM (2010) The influence of formal and informal support on the quality of life of individuals with a severe mental illness. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Yee V (2014) Closing on Short Notice, Brooklyn Assisted-Living Home Angers Families. New York Times A20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Field 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Field 2001; Kim and Benner 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Benner 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Jost et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Combinatorial Optimization
AbbreviationJ. Comb. Optim.
ISSN (print)1382-6905
ISSN (online)1573-2886
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

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