How to format your references using the Journal of Combinatorial Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Combinatorial Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruoff R (2012) Perspective: A means to an end. Nature 483:S42
A journal article with 2 authors
Vähärautio A, Taipale J (2014) Cancer. Cancer by super-enhancer. Science 346:1291–1292
A journal article with 3 authors
Legrand Y-M, van der Lee A, Barboiu M (2010) Single-crystal X-ray structure of 1,3-dimethylcyclobutadiene by confinement in a crystalline matrix. Science 329:299–302
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mondal M, Kamlapure A, Ganguli SC, et al (2013) Enhancement of the finite-frequency superfluid response in the pseudogap regime of strongly disordered superconducting films. Sci Rep 3:1357

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belmont DP (2011) Managing Hedge Fund Risk and Financing. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 1 Fusionopolis Walk, #07-01, Solaris South Tower, Singapore 138628
An edited book
Romberg O (2006) Don’t Panic with Mechanics!: Fun and success in the “loser discipline” of engineering studies! Vieweg, Wiesbaden
A chapter in an edited book
Cuevas LE, Hart CA, Thomson MC (2008) Climate and Environmental Information and the Control of Epidemic Meningitis in Africa. In: Thomson MC, Garcia-Herrera R, Beniston M (eds) Seasonal Forecasts, Climatic Change and Human Health: Health and Climate. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 85–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Combinatorial Optimization.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Here’s What Drugs Europeans Are Getting High On This Year. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Landsat Policy Issues Still Unresolved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shurts C (2010) Superstructure. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF (2006) The Legacies They Left. New York Times 14LI6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruoff 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Ruoff 2012; Vähärautio and Taipale 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vähärautio and Taipale 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Mondal et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Combinatorial Optimization
AbbreviationJ. Comb. Optim.
ISSN (print)1382-6905
ISSN (online)1573-2886
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

Other styles