How to format your references using the Emergency Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emergency Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Seewald JS (2003) Organic-inorganic interactions in petroleum-producing sedimentary basins. Nature 426:327–333
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Keith DW, Farrell AE (2003) Environmental science. Rethinking hydrogen cars. Science 301:315–316
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Collins FS, Gray GM, Bucher JR (2008) Toxicology. Transforming environmental health protection. Science 319:906–907
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Langowski JL, Zhang X, Wu L, et al (2006) IL-23 promotes tumour incidence and growth. Nature 442:461–465

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Anderson SK, Handelsman MM (2009) Ethics for Psychotherapists and Counselors. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
1.
Bahrami H (2010) Super-Flexibility for Knowledge Enterprises: A Toolkit for Dynamic Adaptation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hammal Y (2005) A Formal Semantics of UML StateCharts by Means of Timed Petri Nets. In: Wang F (ed) Formal Techniques for Networked and Distributed Systems - FORTE 2005: 25th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, October 2-5, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 38–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emergency Radiology.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J (2017) A Glider Might Search For Life In The Atmosphere Of Venus In 2025. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1994) New Denver Airport: Impact of the Delayed Baggage System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Tegtmeier T (2009) Science-related attitudes of urban middle school students. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Cooper M (2017) Swiss Conductor Will Lead the Vienna State Opera. New York Times C6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmergency Radiology
AbbreviationEmerg. Radiol.
ISSN (print)1070-3004
ISSN (online)1438-1435
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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