How to format your references using the Emergency Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emergency Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joyce GF (2002) The antiquity of RNA-based evolution. Nature 418:214–221
A journal article with 2 authors
Kodama R, Fast-Ignitor Consortium (2002) Fast heating scalable to laser fusion ignition. Nature 418:933–934
A journal article with 3 authors
Dharmawardhana CC, Misra A, Ching W-Y (2014) Quantum mechanical metric for internal cohesion in cement crystals. Sci Rep 4:7332
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Que X, Hung M-Y, Yeang C, et al (2018) Publisher Correction: Oxidized phospholipids are proinflammatory and proatherogenic in hypercholesterolaemic mice. Nature 561:E43

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belfiore LA (2003) Transport Phenomena for Chemical Reactor Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Vught F van (2009) Mapping the Higher Education Landscape: Towards a European Classifi cation of Higher Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Lengstorf J, Leggetter P (2013) Determining the App’s Functionality and Structure. In: Leggetter P (ed) Realtime Web Apps: With HTML5 WebSocket, PHP, and jQuery. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 65–86

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emergency Radiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Study Finds Association Between Poverty And Brain Development During Childhood. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Factors Affecting Revenue Forecast Accuracy and Realizing Future FAA Expenditures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pugh AN (2010) Adoption is an option: A personal narrative. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik JF (2016) Trading Stocks for Bonds Poses Its Own Risks. New York Times B4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmergency Radiology
AbbreviationEmerg. Radiol.
ISSN (print)1070-3004
ISSN (online)1438-1435
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles