How to format your references using the Emergency Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emergency Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haag A (2007) Alternatives in Colorado. Nature 446:578–579
A journal article with 2 authors
Winkowski DE, Knudsen EI (2006) Top-down gain control of the auditory space map by gaze control circuitry in the barn owl. Nature 439:336–339
A journal article with 3 authors
Weisbuch M, Pauker K, Ambady N (2009) The subtle transmission of race bias via televised nonverbal behavior. Science 326:1711–1714
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sasaki H, Yamamoto K, Ichihashi Y, Senoh T (2014) Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography. Sci Rep 4:4000

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tavakoli JM (2008) Structured Finance and Collateralized Debt Obligations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bandyopadhyay S (2007) Classification and Learning Using Genetic Algorithms: Applications in Bioinformatics and Web Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Csató G, Dacorogna B, Kneuss O (2012) Dimension Reduction. In: Dacorogna B, Kneuss O (eds) The Pullback Equation for Differential Forms. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, pp 91–97

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emergency Radiology.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Ancient Chinese Cave Writing Describes Social Impacts of Climate Change. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972) Identification of NASA Research and Development Programs Subject to Benefit-Cost Analysis. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mehta V (2009) Sparta in the Enlightenment. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dargis M, Poniewozik J (2017) Not Exactly Your Simple Sequel. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmergency Radiology
AbbreviationEmerg. Radiol.
ISSN (print)1070-3004
ISSN (online)1438-1435
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles