How to format your references using the Emergency Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emergency Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mitchell K (2010) Journal club. A neurodevelopmental geneticist explores how one mutation can lead to multiple diseases. Nature 464:1107
A journal article with 2 authors
Bradshaw WE, Holzapfel CM (2006) Climate change. Evolutionary response to rapid climate change. Science 312:1477–1478
A journal article with 3 authors
Chandrappa GT, Steunou N, Livage J (2002) Materials chemistry: macroporous crystalline vanadium oxide foam. Nature 416:702
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schroeter H, Holt RR, Orozco TJ, et al (2003) Nutrition: milk and absorption of dietary flavanols. Nature 426:787–8; discussion 788

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cook M (2008) Personnel Selection. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Collins MJ (2014) Pro Office 365 Development: Second Edition, Second Edition. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Banavar RN, Sankaranarayanan V (2006) Switched Stabilization of a Hovercraft. In: Sankaranarayanan V (ed) Switched Finite Time Control of a Class of Underactuated Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 61–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emergency Radiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Enormous Hole In The Universe May Not Be The Only One. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Medicare Computer Systems: Year 2000 Challenges Put Benefits and Services in Jeopardy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang Y (2017) Toward a Molecular Mechanism of Phase Separation in Disordered Elastin-Like Proteins. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick B (2017) The Flower Shop. New York Times D6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmergency Radiology
AbbreviationEmerg. Radiol.
ISSN (print)1070-3004
ISSN (online)1438-1435
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles