How to format your references using the Emergency Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emergency Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Davis RJ (2012) Cell biology. A scaffold switch to insulate. Science 337:1178–1179
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Fernández A, Lynch M (2011) Non-adaptive origins of interactome complexity. Nature 474:502–505
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Hren MT, Tice MM, Chamberlain CP (2009) Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for a temperate climate 3.42 billion years ago. Nature 462:205–208
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Packer C, Ikanda D, Kissui B, Kushnir H (2005) Conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in Tanzania. Nature 436:927–928

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Cicek V (2017) Corrosion Engineering and Cathodic Protection Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Bennett J, Vivodtzev F, Pascucci V (2015) Topological and Statistical Methods for Complex Data: Tackling Large-Scale, High-Dimensional, and Multivariate Data Spaces. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gorlewski JA, Gorlewski DA, Ramming TM (2012) Standard 3. In: Gorlewski DA, Ramming TM (eds) Theory into Practice: Case Stories for School Leaders. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 39–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emergency Radiology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2016) The Amazing Things Poo Can Tell You About An Animal’s Health. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/amazing-things-poo-can-tell-you-about-animal-s-health/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1980) Farmers Home Administration’s ADP Development Project--Current Status and Unresolved Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Mayberry DS (2017) Total Relaxation Center, LLC. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Urbina I (2016) Rising Seas Turn Coastal Houses Into a Gamble. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmergency Radiology
AbbreviationEmerg. Radiol.
ISSN (print)1070-3004
ISSN (online)1438-1435
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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