How to format your references using the Emergency Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emergency Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Peters SE (2008) Environmental determinants of extinction selectivity in the fossil record. Nature 454:626–629
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Calsbeek R, Cox RM (2010) Experimentally assessing the relative importance of predation and competition as agents of selection. Nature 465:613–616
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Jouvenet N, Bieniasz PD, Simon SM (2008) Imaging the biogenesis of individual HIV-1 virions in live cells. Nature 454:236–240
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Jex AR, Liu S, Li B, et al (2011) Ascaris suum draft genome. Nature 479:529–533

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Wolf KH, Barnes R (2010) VoIP Emergency Calling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Hu Z (2013) Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Yen H-C (2008) Concurrency, Synchronization, and Conflicts in Petri Nets. In: Ibarra OH, Ravikumar B (eds) Implementation and Applications of Automata: 13th International Conference, CIAA 2008, San Francisco, California, USA, July 21-24, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 33–35

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emergency Radiology.

Blog post
1.
Davis J (2016) First-Ever Philistine Cemetery Unearthed In Israel. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2005) Highway Safety: Further Opportunities Exist to Improve Data on Crashes Involving Commercial Motor Vehicles. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
French DC (2012) A Case against E-Waste: Where One Country’s Trash is (Not) Another Country’s Treasure: Developing National E-Waste Legislation to Regulate E-Waste Exportation. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Crow K (2003) The Gift Is a Subway Station, But Some Look It in the Mouth. New York Times 145

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmergency Radiology
AbbreviationEmerg. Radiol.
ISSN (print)1070-3004
ISSN (online)1438-1435
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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