How to format your references using the The Electricity Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Electricity Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toggweiler, J.R., 2009. Climate change. Shifting westerlies. Science 323, 1434–1435.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lysenko, V., Varduny, T., 2013. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals? Sci. Rep. 3, 3373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, B.S., Meijer, G., Schöllkopf, W., 2011. Quantum reflection of He2 several nanometers above a grating surface. Science 331, 892–894.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Geijsen, N., Horoschak, M., Kim, K., Gribnau, J., Eggan, K., Daley, G.Q., 2004. Derivation of embryonic germ cells and male gametes from embryonic stem cells. Nature 427, 148–154.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman, J.A., Tasman, A., 2006. Handbook of Psychiatric Drugs. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hvam, L., 2008. Product Customization. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
He, R., Hu, B., Yuan, X., Wang, L., 2014. ℓ 1 Regularized Correntropy, in: Hu, B., Yuan, X., Wang, L. (Eds.), Robust Recognition via Information Theoretic Learning, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 61–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Electricity Journal.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Ants Improve Network Design [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Status of the Research Fleet of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce (No. T-RCED-89-29). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nellenbach, K.M., 2010. Contributions of oral language, problem-solving, and reading attitudes to young adolescents’ silent reading comprehension (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J., 2016. A Hot Spot for River Otters? The Latrine. New York Times D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Toggweiler, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Lysenko and Varduny, 2013; Toggweiler, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lysenko and Varduny, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Geijsen et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Electricity Journal
AbbreviationElectr. J.
ISSN (print)1040-6190
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Management of Technology and Innovation
Energy (miscellaneous)

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