How to format your references using the The Electricity Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Electricity Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldbeter, A., 2002. Computational approaches to cellular rhythms. Nature 420, 238–245.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vakil, A., Engheta, N., 2011. Transformation optics using graphene. Science 332, 1291–1294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyer, P., Saez, L., Young, M.W., 2006. PER-TIM interactions in living Drosophila cells: an interval timer for the circadian clock. Science 311, 226–229.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brott, L.L., Naik, R.R., Pikas, D.J., Kirkpatrick, S.M., Tomlin, D.W., Whitlock, P.W., Clarson, S.J., Stone, M.O., 2001. Ultrafast holographic nanopatterning of biocatalytically formed silica. Nature 413, 291–293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeRosa, T.F., 2008. Advances in Polymer Chemistry and Methods Reported in Recent US Patents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Brouwer, A.E., 2012. Spectra of Graphs, Universitext. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
De Lecea, A.M., Cooper, R., 2016. The Importance of the Thukela River Estuary, East Coast of South Africa, for the Biology of the Near-Shore Environment and Associated Human Aspects: A Review, in: Diop, S., Scheren, P., Ferdinand Machiwa, J. (Eds.), Estuaries: A Lifeline of Ecosystem Services in the Western Indian Ocean, Estuaries of the World. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Electricity Journal.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. There’s A Massive Metal Dragon Hiding Inside Earth’s Outer Core [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Hospital Quality Data: HHS Should Specify Steps and Time Frame for Using Information Technology to Collect and Submit Data (No. GAO-07-320). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gowda, V., 2009. Pollination biology and inter-island geographical variation in the mutualistic Heliconia (Heliconiaceae)-hummingbird (Trochilidae) interaction of the Eastern Caribbean Islands (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J., 2017. A Mother Struggles Alone to Keep Her Family United. New York Times A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldbeter, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Goldbeter, 2002; Vakil and Engheta, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vakil and Engheta, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Brott et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Electricity Journal
AbbreviationElectr. J.
ISSN (print)1040-6190
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Management of Technology and Innovation
Energy (miscellaneous)

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