How to format your references using the OPSEARCH citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for OPSEARCH. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McFadden, P.: Tech.Sight. Biosensors. Broadband biodetection: Holmes on a chip. Science. 297, 2075–2076 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Wickens, M., Gonzalez, T.N.: Molecular biology. Knives, accomplices, and RNA. Science. 306, 1299–1300 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Hren, M.T., Tice, M.M., Chamberlain, C.P.: Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for a temperate climate 3.42 billion years ago. Nature. 462, 205–208 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cho, H., Hashimoto, T., Wong, E., Hori, Y., Wood, L.B., Zhao, L., Haigis, K.M., Hyman, B.T., Irimia, D.: Microfluidic chemotaxis platform for differentiating the roles of soluble and bound amyloid-β on microglial accumulation. Sci. Rep. 3, 1823 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinquis, A.: Digital Signal Processing using MATLAB®. ISTE, London, UK (2008)
An edited book
Ratajczak, M.Z. ed: Adult Stem Cell Therapies: Alternatives to Plasticity. Springer, New York, NY (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Jayanti, P., Petrovic, S.: Efficiently Implementing LL/SC Objects Shared by an Unknown Number of Processes. In: Pal, A., Kshemkalyani, A.D., Kumar, R., and Gupta, A. (eds.) Distributed Computing – IWDC 2005: 7th International Workshop, Kharagpur, India, December 27-30, 2005. Proceedings. pp. 45–56. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2005)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for OPSEARCH.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Regenerative Medicine Has Huge Potential But It Does Not Come Cheap,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: FCC: Non-Voice, Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1997)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emerson, J.D.: The Jambalaya That is My Brain, (2001)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W.: New Puerto Rico Debt Relief Law Stirs Colonial Resentments, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOPSEARCH
ISSN (print)0030-3887
ISSN (online)0975-0320
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research

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