How to format your references using the OPSEARCH citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for OPSEARCH. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patten, Lord: Europe pays the price for spending less. Nature. 441, 691–693 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Smaglik, P., Smith, A.: Biotech jobs are still around despite the recent bumpy ride. Nature. 418, 4–5 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson, S.C., Rabinovitch, P.S., Kaeberlein, M.: mTOR is a key modulator of ageing and age-related disease. Nature. 493, 338–345 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Potter, B.A., Beaudoin, A.B., Haynes, C.V., Holliday, V.T., Holmes, C.E., Ives, J.W., Kelly, R., Llamas, B., Malhi, R., Miller, S., Reich, D., Reuther, J.D., Schiffels, S., Surovell, T.: Arrival routes of first Americans uncertain. Science. 359, 1224–1225 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuo, J.B., Lin, S.-C.: Low-Voltage SOI CMOS VLSI Devices and Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA (2002)
An edited book
Knippers, J., Nickel, K.G., Speck, T. eds: Biomimetic Research for Architecture and Building Construction: Biological Design and Integrative Structures. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Oren, N.: Argument Schemes for Normative Practical Reasoning. In: Black, E., Modgil, S., and Oren, N. (eds.) Theory and Applications of Formal Argumentation: Second International Workshop, TAFA 2013, Beijing, China, August 3-5, 2013, Revised Selected papers. pp. 63–78. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for OPSEARCH.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: New Type Of Computer Capable Of Calculating 640TBs Of Data In One Billionth Of A Second, Could Revolutionize Computing,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: School Finance: Three States’ Experiences With Equity in School Funding. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carpenter, D.M.: Understanding the effect of conflicting information on medication adherence for vasculitis patients, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: From the Men, A Few Highlights After the Deluge, (2011)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOPSEARCH
ISSN (print)0030-3887
ISSN (online)0975-0320
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research

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