How to format your references using the The Egyptian Rheumatologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Egyptian Rheumatologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dagotto E. PHYSICS. When oxides meet face to face. Science 2007;318:1076–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clandinin TR, Giocomo LM. Neuroscience: Internal compass puts flies in their place. Nature 2015;521:165–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haerizadeh F, Singh MB, Bhalla PL. Transcriptional repression distinguishes somatic from germ cell lineages in a plant. Science 2006;313:496–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Weldeab S, Lea DW, Schneider RR, Andersen N. 155,000 years of West African monsoon and ocean thermal evolution. Science 2007;316:1303–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bullard B. Style and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Kamel M, Karray F, Gueaieb W, Khamis A, editors. Autonomous and Intelligent Systems: Second International Conference, AIS 2011, Burnaby, BC, Canada, June 22-24, 2011. Proceedings. vol. 6752. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Boskou S, Engelbrekt K. Keeping a Low Profile: Greek Strategic Culture and International Military Operations. In: Britz M, editor. European Participation in International Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 77–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Egyptian Rheumatologist.

Blog post
Andrew E. Engineering’s Unexpected And Microscopic Beauty. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Carrier Safety: New Applicant Reviews Should Expand to Identify Freight Carriers Evading Detection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexandre KM. Identifying mechanisms regulating Wnt signaling during postembryonic development. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Forsythe M. Billionaire Critic of China Requests Asylum in U.S. New York Times 2017:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Egyptian Rheumatologist
ISSN (print)1110-1164

Other styles