How to format your references using the Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knapp, S. (2013). Evolution. What, where, and when? Science 341, 1182–1184.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhan, Z., and Barnett, S. A. (2005). An octane-fueled solid oxide fuel cell. Science 308, 844–847.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reddien, P. W., Cameron, S., and Horvitz, H. R. (2001). Phagocytosis promotes programmed cell death in C. elegans. Nature 412, 198–202.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jayawardhana, S., Rosa, L., Juodkazis, S., and Stoddart, P. R. (2013). Additional enhancement of electric field in surface-enhanced Raman Scattering due to Fresnel mechanism. Sci. Rep. 3, 2335.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horváth, T. (2006). Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Papathanassis, A. ed. (2016). Cruise Business Development: Safety, Product Design and Human Capital. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gong, Z., Lin, Y., and Yao, T. (2013). “Complementary Preference Relations of Triangular Fuzzy Numbers,” in Uncertain Fuzzy Preference Relations and Their Applications Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing., eds. Y. Lin and T. Yao (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 45–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Ask A Physicist To Speak At Your Funeral. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Computer Operations: FAA Needs to Implement an Effective Capacity Management Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parada, P. M. (2013). Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton’s Staff Sees Campaign As a Real War. New York Times, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knapp, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Zhan and Barnett, 2005; Knapp, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhan and Barnett, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Jayawardhana et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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