How to format your references using the Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie, T. (2010). Tunable polymer multi-shape memory effect. Nature 464, 267–270.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bednarek, P., and Osbourn, A. (2009). Plant-microbe interactions: chemical diversity in plant defense. Science 324, 746–748.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nakatsuji, S., Kiyohara, N., and Higo, T. (2015). Large anomalous Hall effect in a non-collinear antiferromagnet at room temperature. Nature 527, 212–215.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Makris, N. C., Ratilal, P., Symonds, D. T., Jagannathan, S., Lee, S., and Nero, R. W. (2006). Fish population and behavior revealed by instantaneous continental shelf-scale imaging. Science 311, 660–663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sailor, W. (2009). Making RTI Work. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
Metwally, M., and Li, T.-C. eds. (2015). Reproductive Surgery in Assisted Conception. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
De León, M. S. P., and Zollikofer, C. P. E. (2006). “Neanderthals and modern humans — chimps and bonobos: similarities and differences in development and evolution,” in Neanderthals Revisited: New Approaches and Perspectives Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology., eds. J.-J. Hublin, K. Harvati, and T. Harrison (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 71–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). How Understanding Breast Cancer At A Molecular Level Is Revolutionising Our Thinking. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017). District of Columbia Charter Schools: Multi-Agency Plan Needed to Continue Progress Addressing High and Disproportionate Discipline Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Skiold-Hanlin, S. (2015). Functional and Ecological Aspects of the Mucus Trails of the Freshwater Gastropod Elimia potosiensis.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B., Goldstein, M., and Corkery, M. (2016). Wells Fargo Subpoenaed in Inquiry of Accounts. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xie, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bednarek and Osbourn, 2009; Xie, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bednarek and Osbourn, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Makris et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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