How to format your references using the Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis, M. E. (2003). Materials science. Distinguishing the (almost) indistinguishable. Science 300, 438–439.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raman, K. V., and Moodera, J. S. (2015). Materials chemistry: A magnetic facelift for non-magnetic metals. Nature 524, 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stuphorn, V., Taylor, T. L., and Schall, J. D. (2000). Performance monitoring by the supplementary eye field. Nature 408, 857–860.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wu, J., Huang, J., Han, X., Xie, Z., and Gao, X. (2003). Ecology. Three-Gorges Dam--experiment in habitat fragmentation? Science 300, 1239–1240.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Loriaux, D. L. (2016). A Biographical History of Endocrinology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mielenz, J. R., Klasson, K. T., Adney, W. S., and McMillan, J. D. eds. (2007). Applied Biochemistry and Biotecnology: The Twenty-Eighth Symposium Proceedings of the Twenty-Eight Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held April 30–May 3, 2006, in Nashville, Tennessee. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Bettinger, P., and Kim, Y.-H. (2008). “Spatial Optimisation – Computational Methods,” in Designing Green Landscapes Managing Forest Ecosystems., eds. K. von Gadow and T. Pukkala (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 111–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). New Type Of Chemical Bond Confirmed. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985). Federal Agencies’ Policies and Practices Are in Accordance With Patent and Trademark Amendments of 1980. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Song, X. (2015). A New Estimating Equation Based Approach for Secondary Trait Analyses in Genetic Case-control Studies.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017). Amid the Clutter Lies Some Clarity. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davis, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Davis, 2003; Raman and Moodera, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raman and Moodera, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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