How to format your references using the Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Finkel, A. (2014). Perspective: powering up citations. Nature 511, S77.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murphy, J. J., and Melchiorre, P. (2015). Organic chemistry: Light opens pathways for nickel catalysis. Nature 524, 297–298.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brengues, M., Teixeira, D., and Parker, R. (2005). Movement of eukaryotic mRNAs between polysomes and cytoplasmic processing bodies. Science 310, 486–489.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Matzel, J. E. P., Ishii, H. A., Joswiak, D., Hutcheon, I. D., Bradley, J. P., Brownlee, D., et al. (2010). Constraints on the formation age of cometary material from the NASA Stardust mission. Science 328, 483–486.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lehto, J., and Hou, X. (2010). Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wehrtmann, I. S., and Cortés, J. eds. (2009). Marine Biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Bergner, M., Caprara, A., Furini, F., Lübbecke, M. E., Malaguti, E., and Traversi, E. (2011). “Partial Convexification of General MIPs by Dantzig-Wolfe Reformulation,” in Integer Programming and Combinatoral Optimization: 15th International Conference, IPCO 2011, New York, NY, USA, June 15-17, 2011. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. O. Günlük and G. J. Woeginger (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 39–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2015). Scientists Discover Weak Spot Of The Superbug MRSA. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Highway Fund Audit. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray, E. (2012). California community college athletic directors lived experience and perceptions about financing issues with athletic programs.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010). No Longer Thinking Uniformly. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Finkel, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Finkel, 2014; Murphy and Melchiorre, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murphy and Melchiorre, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Matzel et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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