How to format your references using the Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meeks, J. C. (2011). Microbiology. Closing the cycle. Science 334, 1508–1509.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuo, I.-F. W., and Mundy, C. J. (2004). An ab initio molecular dynamics study of the aqueous liquid-vapor interface. Science 303, 658–660.
A journal article with 3 authors
Downs, J. A., Lowndes, N. F., and Jackson, S. P. (2000). A role for Saccharomyces cerevisiae histone H2A in DNA repair. Nature 408, 1001–1004.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cao, R., Wang, L., Wang, H., Xia, L., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., et al. (2002). Role of histone H3 lysine 27 methylation in Polycomb-group silencing. Science 298, 1039–1043.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ryan, F. (2013). Cognitive Therapy for Addiction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Kanzaki, H. ed. (2016). Uterine Endometrial Function. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang, M., and Yu, X. (2015). “Market Barriers to Energy Efficiency,” in Energy Efficiency: Benefits for Environment and Society Green Energy and Technology., ed. X. Yu (London: Springer), 33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015). Cymatics: When Science And Music Dance. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). NASA: Compliance with Cost Limits. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gokhin, D. S. (2009). Structural and functional roles of nebulin in skeletal muscle.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blinder, A. (2014). Pennsylvania Officials Identify Suspect in Ambush at Barracks. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meeks, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kuo and Mundy, 2004; Meeks, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kuo and Mundy, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Cao et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Computational Physiology and Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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