How to format your references using the The Design Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Design Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman, J.M. (2000). ‘Obesity in the new millennium’. Nature, 404(6778): 632–634.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully, R. and Livingston, D.M. (2000). ‘In search of the tumour-suppressor functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2’. Nature, 408(6811): 429–432.
A journal article with 3 authors
McSween, H.Y., Jr, Taylor, G.J. and Wyatt, M.B. (2009). ‘Elemental composition of the Martian crust’. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5928): 736–739.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, Y.-C., Huang, T.-K., Tung, S.-H., Wu, T.-M. and Lin, J.-J. (2013). ‘Self-assembled clay films with a platelet-void multilayered nanostructure and flame-blocking properties’. Scientific reports, 3: 2621.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laycock, J. and Meeran, K. (2012). Integrated Endocrinology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sachithanadam, M. (2016). Silica Aerogel Composites: Novel Fabrication Methods. S. C. Joshi, ed. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jain, P., Pandey, R. and Shukla, S.S. (2015). ‘Natural Sources of Anti-inflammation’. In R. Pandey & S. S. Shukla, eds. Inflammation: Natural Resources and Its Applications. SpringerBriefs in Immunology. New Delhi: Springer India, pp. 25–133.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Design Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2015). ‘Simulation Shows What Happens To Rocks After A Meteor Impact’. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Need for the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration To Improve Certain Aspects of Its Management of the Law Enforcement Education Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escobedo, N.L. (2014). A continuing bonds grief support group for Latinas who have lost a child: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010). ‘Wilpons First Need To Replace Mind-Set’. New York Times: B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Friedman, 2000; Scully and Livingston, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scully and Livingston, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Design Journal
ISSN (print)1460-6925
ISSN (online)1756-3062
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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