How to format your references using the The Design Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Design Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cock, M. (2010). ‘Biopiracy rules should not block biological control’. Nature, 467(7314): 369.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reynolds, J.D. and Freckleton, R.P. (2005). ‘Ecology. Population dynamics: growing to extremes’. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5734): 567–568.
A journal article with 3 authors
Branco, T., Clark, B.A. and Häusser, M. (2010). ‘Dendritic discrimination of temporal input sequences in cortical neurons’. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5999): 1671–1675.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, G., Sun, S., Cai, M., Zhang, Y., Li, R. and Sun, X. (2013). ‘Porous dendritic platinum nanotubes with extremely high activity and stability for oxygen reduction reaction’. Scientific reports, 3: 1526.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hulin, W. and Jin-Ting, Z. (2006). Nonparametric Regression Methods for Longitudinal Data Analysis: Mixed-Effects Modeling Approaches. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fastl, H. (2007). Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models. E. Zwicker, ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sourabh Joshi and Sarabjit Kaur. (2016). ‘Ant Colony Optimization Meta-heuristic for Solving Real Travelling Salesman Problem’. In N. R. Shetty, N. H. Prasad, & N. Nalini, eds. Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications: ERCICA 2015, Volume 3. Singapore: Springer, pp. 55–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Design Journal.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). ‘Kiwi Bird Genome Reveals How They Adapted to Nocturnal Lifestyle’. IFLScience. [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). The Summer Feeding Program for Children: Reforms Begun--Many More Urgently Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grasis, J.A. (2008). Controlling T lymphocyte activation with a molecular rheostat. Doctoral dissertation. La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017). ‘Its Sports Fandom Evolving, Atlanta Chases Football Glory’. New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cock, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Cock, 2010; Reynolds and Freckleton, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reynolds and Freckleton, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Design Journal
ISSN (print)1460-6925
ISSN (online)1756-3062
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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