How to format your references using the The Design Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Design Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. (2015). ‘Super-resolve me: from micro to nano’. Nature, 526(7573): 459–462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Göhlich, U.B. and Chiappe, L.M. (2006). ‘A new carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen archipelago’. Nature, 440(7082): 329–332.
A journal article with 3 authors
El-Ali, J., Sorger, P.K. and Jensen, K.F. (2006). ‘Cells on chips’. Nature, 442(7101): 403–411.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Koide, S., Shibata, K., Kudoh, T. and Meier, D.L. (2002). ‘Extraction of black hole rotational energy by a magnetic field and the formation of relativistic jets’. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5560): 1688–1691.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibrahim, M.A. (2011). Disturbance Analysis for Power Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
van den Hoven, J., Doorn, N., Swierstra, T., Koops, B.-J. and Romijn, H. eds. (2014). Responsible Innovation 1: Innovative Solutions for Global Issues. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Yi, H. and Tian, X. (2010). ‘A Study to Neuron Ensemble of Cognitive Cortex ISI Coding Represent Stimulus’. In L. Zhang, B.-L. Lu, & J. Kwok, eds. Advances in Neural Networks - ISNN 2010: 7th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2010, Shanghai, China, June 6-9, 2010, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Design Journal.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2014). ‘Could Telepathy Exist In Real Life?’ IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Mass Transit: ‘Mobility Improvements’ Is One of Many Factors Used to Evaluate Mass Transit Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pugh, A.N. (2010). Adoption is an option: A personal narrative. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O. (2015). ‘Friday File’. New York Times: C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein, 2015; Göhlich and Chiappe, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Göhlich and Chiappe, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Koide et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Design Journal
ISSN (print)1460-6925
ISSN (online)1756-3062
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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