How to format your references using the The Design Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Design Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trevan, T. (2015). ‘Biological research: Rethink biosafety’. Nature, 527(7577): 155–158.
A journal article with 2 authors
McCormick, C. and Ganem, D. (2005). ‘The kaposin B protein of KSHV activates the p38/MK2 pathway and stabilizes cytokine mRNAs’. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5710): 739–741.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, J.-T., Chen, C. and Kawazoe, Y. (2013). ‘New carbon allotropes with helical chains of complementary chirality connected by ethene-type π-conjugation’. Scientific reports, 3: 3077.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tatar, M., Kopelman, A., Epstein, D., Tu, M.P., Yin, C.M. and Garofalo, R.S. (2001). ‘A mutant Drosophila insulin receptor homolog that extends life-span and impairs neuroendocrine function’. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5514): 107–110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shinohara, H. and Tagmatarchis, N. (2015). Endohedral Metallofullerenes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Oja, S.S. and Saransaari, P. eds. (2006). Taurine 6. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Spannagel, D. (2016). ‘Strategies Against Poverty and Social Exclusion in a Corporatist–Conservative Local Welfare System: The Dortmund Consensus’. In H. Johansson & A. Panican, eds. Combating Poverty in Local Welfare Systems. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 105–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Design Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). ‘Memory And Sense Of Self May Play More Of A Role In Autism Than We Thought’. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Vocational Training Contracts Awarded to Engineering Drafting School, Inc., Denver, Colorado. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wignall, J. (2013). No longer in the shadows: Identity, citizenship, and belonging among undocumented college students in Southern California. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017). ‘Musical Theater Loses A Versatile Voice’. New York Times: C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trevan, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Trevan, 2015; McCormick and Ganem, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McCormick and Ganem, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Tatar et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Design Journal
ISSN (print)1460-6925
ISSN (online)1756-3062
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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