How to format your references using the Archives of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beasley M. Michael Tinkham (1928-2010). Nature. 2010;468(7325):766.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nanus DM, Giannakakou P. CANCER. Cancer therapies that are gone with the Wnt. Science. 2015;349(6254):1283-1284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fischle W, Wang Y, Allis CD. Binary switches and modification cassettes in histone biology and beyond. Nature. 2003;425(6957):475-479.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tsukamoto S, Kuma A, Murakami M, Kishi C, Yamamoto A, Mizushima N. Autophagy is essential for preimplantation development of mouse embryos. Science. 2008;321(5885):117-120.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bayuk JL, Healey J, Rohmeyer P, Sachs MH, Schmidt J, Weiss J. Cyber Security Policy Guidebook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Kurosu M, ed. Human Centered Design: First International Conference, HCD 2009, Held as Part of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009 Proceedings. Vol 5619. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Hua C, Zhao HJ, Chen Y. Mining XML Frequent Query Patterns. In: Wang W, Li Y, Duan Z, Yan L, Li H, Yang X, eds. Integration and Innovation Orient to E-Society Volume 1: Seventh IFIP International Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society (I3E2007), October 10–12, Wuhan, China. IFIP — The International Federation for Information Processing. Springer US; 2008:26-34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Surgery.

Blog post
Taub B. You Can Now Charge Your Smartphone With Your Pee. IFLScience. Published July 22, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: FDA Has Taken Steps to Address Challenges but Needs a Comprehensive Strategic Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shrank SM. ShareOne: An IOS Resource Application for Caseworkers: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Taylor Swift’s Single Breaks Spotify Record. New York Times. August 28, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Surg.
ISSN (print)0004-0010
ISSN (online)1538-3644

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