How to format your references using the Archives of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Wootton JT. Local interactions predict large-scale pattern in empirically derived cellular automata. Nature. 2001;413(6858):841-844.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Grimmer MR, Costello JF. Cancer: Oncogene brought into the loop. Nature. 2016;529(7584):34-35.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Reddien PW, Cameron S, Horvitz HR. Phagocytosis promotes programmed cell death in C. elegans. Nature. 2001;412(6843):198-202.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Cifuentes L, Borja-Aburto VH, Gouveia N, Thurston G, Davis DL. Climate change. Hidden health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. Science. 2001;293(5533):1257-1259.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Morley D. Communications and Mobility. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Geunes J, Pardalos PM, Romeijn HE, eds. Supply Chain Management: Models, Applications, and Research Directions. Vol 62. Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Fuller CE. Oligodendroglial Tumors. In: Adesina AM, Tihan T, Fuller CE, Poussaint TY, eds. Atlas of Pediatric Brain Tumors. Springer; 2010:39-46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. Simulation Shows What Happens To Rocks After A Meteor Impact. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund: Financial Status and Outlook. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Murray E. California community college athletic directors lived experience and perceptions about financing issues with athletic programs. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Barry E, Kishkovsky S. For Tolstoy and Russia, Still No Happy Ending. New York Times. January 4, 2011:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Surg.
ISSN (print)0004-0010
ISSN (online)1538-3644
ScopeSurgery

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