How to format your references using the Archives of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dulloo AG. Biomedicine. A sympathetic defense against obesity. Science. 2002;297(5582):780-781.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peppe DJ, Royer DL. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE. Can climate feel the pressure? Science. 2015;348(6240):1210-1211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petersen-Mahrt SK, Harris RS, Neuberger MS. AID mutates E. coli suggesting a DNA deamination mechanism for antibody diversification. Nature. 2002;418(6893):99-103.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang H, Wang L, Erdjument-Bromage H, et al. Role of histone H2A ubiquitination in Polycomb silencing. Nature. 2004;431(7010):873-878.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Imbriale WA. Large Antennas of the Deep Space Network. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Hessayon A, ed. Jane Lead and Her Transnational Legacy. Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
D’Amico G, Del Bimbo A, Dini F, Landucci L, Torpei N. Natural Human–Computer Interaction. In: Shao L, Shan C, Luo J, Etoh M, eds. Multimedia Interaction and Intelligent User Interfaces: Principles, Methods and Applications. Advances in Pattern Recognition. Springer; 2010:85-106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Surgery.

Blog post
Hamilton K. The Most Important Dam You Probably Haven’t Heard Of. IFLScience. Published August 30, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The SEMATECH Consortium’s Start-up Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Byrne SM. Metabolic and Pathological Role of Retinyl Esters: The Role of Lecithin:Retinol Acyl Transferase, (LRAT). Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets Fall Again, and Weigh Options. New York Times. July 31, 2017:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Surg.
ISSN (print)0004-0010
ISSN (online)1538-3644

Other styles