How to format your references using the Archives of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Victor P. Questioning economic growth. Nature. 2010;468(7322):370-371.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson GL, Lapadat R. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases. Science. 2002;298(5600):1911-1912.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palazzo A, Ackerman B, Gundersen GG. Cell biology: Tubulin acetylation and cell motility. Nature. 2003;421(6920):230.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
McDonel P, Jans J, Peterson BK, Meyer BJ. Clustered DNA motifs mark X chromosomes for repression by a dosage compensation complex. Nature. 2006;444(7119):614-618.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson D. TKO Hiring! John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Lin L. Statistical Tools for Measuring Agreement. 1st ed. (Hedayat AS, Wu W, eds.). Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Brändas EJ. Some Biochemical Reflections on Information and Communication. In: Hotokka M, Brändas EJ, Maruani J, Delgado-Barrio G, eds. Advances in Quantum Methods and Applications in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology. Progress in Theoretical Chemistry and Physics. Springer International Publishing; 2013:75-98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew D. Watch What Happens When You Drop A Feather On Nitrogen Triiodide. IFLScience. Published September 9, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Competition in the Cellular Telephone Service Industry. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Domina NV. Gender and culture influences on leadership perceptions. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J, Rosenberg M. China’s Intelligent Weaponry Gets Smarter. New York Times. February 3, 2017:BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Surg.
ISSN (print)0004-0010
ISSN (online)1538-3644

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