How to format your references using the Archives of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Franklin AD. DEVICE TECHNOLOGY. Nanomaterials in transistors: From high-performance to thin-film applications. Science. 2015;349(6249):aab2750.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Wodarz D, Zauber AG. Cancer: Risk factors and random chances. Nature. 2015;517(7536):563-564.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Tatano Y, Shimizu T, Tomioka H. Unique macrophages different from M1/M2 macrophages inhibit T cell mitogenesis while upregulating Th17 polarization. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4146.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Guo Z, Maki M, Ding R, Yang Y, Zhang B, Xiong L. Genome-wide survey of tissue-specific microRNA and transcription factor regulatory networks in 12 tissues. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5150.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Li RC-H. RF Circuit Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Paipetis A, Kostopoulos V, eds. Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Aerospace Composite Materials: A New Generation of Multifunctional Hybrid Structural Composites. Vol 188. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Harbour JW, Mohsenin A. Second Primary Tumors in Retinoblastoma. In: Karcioglu ZA, ed. Orbital Tumors: Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer; 2015:37-41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Dolphins Have A Magnetic Sense. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: More Robust DOT Oversight of Guardrails and Other Roadside Hardware Could Further Enhance Safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Lanigan LG. Effects of Two Cancer Genes, HTLV-1 Tax and E-Cadherin, on Cancer Development and Progression. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Shpigel B. Rout Leaves Jets’ Hopes in Peril and Fitzpatrick’s Job in Jeopardy. New York Times. October 18, 2016:B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Surg.
ISSN (print)0004-0010
ISSN (online)1538-3644
ScopeSurgery

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