How to format your references using the The Cryosphere Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Cryosphere Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Erez, N.: Cancer: Opening LOX to metastasis, Nature, 522, 41–42, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, M. and Wanke, M. C.: Applied physics. Searching for a solid-state terahertz technology, Science, 316, 64–65, 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tobler, P. N., Fiorillo, C. D., and Schultz, W.: Adaptive coding of reward value by dopamine neurons, Science, 307, 1642–1645, 2005.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Oliver, D., Lien, C.-C., Soom, M., Baukrowitz, T., Jonas, P., and Fakler, B.: Functional conversion between A-type and delayed rectifier K+ channels by membrane lipids, Science, 304, 265–270, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, D. R. J. M. and Al-Ani, D. M. Z.: Temporomandibular Disorders, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Schättler, H.: Optimal Control for Mathematical Models of Cancer Therapies: An Application of Geometric Methods, 1st ed. 2015., edited by: Ledzewicz, U., Springer, New York, NY, XIX, 496 p. 115 illus., 85 illus. in color pp., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Monaghan, K. G. and Van Dyke, D. L.: Laboratory Testing for Prader-Willi Syndrome, in: Management of Prader-Willi Syndrome, edited by: Butler, M. G., Lee, P. D. K., and Whitman, B. Y., Springer, New York, NY, 74–93, 2006.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Cryosphere Discussions.

Blog post
Daily Diary Reveals How Cannabis Use Affects People With Bipolar:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: School Improvement Grants: Survey of State Educational Agencies Regarding Grant Implementation (GAO-12-370SP, April 2012), an E-supplement to GAO-12-373, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Forshey, T. M.: Neural basis of the neurological diagnostic power of vibrotactile sensory testing, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rutenberg, J., Steel, E., and Koblin, J.: Kisses and Fear for the Women From Fox News, New York Times, 23rd July, A1, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Erez, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Erez, 2015; Lee and Wanke, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Wanke, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Oliver et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Cryosphere Discussions
ISSN (online)1994-0440
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Water Science and Technology

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