How to format your references using the The Cryosphere Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Cryosphere Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Curran, D. P.: Chemistry. Fluorous tags unstick messy chemical biology problems, Science, 321, 1645–1646, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keesing, F. and Ostfeld, R. S.: Ecology. Is biodiversity good for your health?, Science, 349, 235–236, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Green, J. L., Bohannan, B. J. M., and Whitaker, R. J.: Microbial biogeography: from taxonomy to traits, Science, 320, 1039–1043, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
El-Khamisy, S. F., Saifi, G. M., Weinfeld, M., Johansson, F., Helleday, T., Lupski, J. R., and Caldecott, K. W.: Defective DNA single-strand break repair in spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1, Nature, 434, 108–113, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Preber, B. J.: Financial Expert Witness Communication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Takizawa, M., Barolli, L., and Enokido, T. (Eds.): Network-Based Information Systems: 2nd International Conference, NBiS 2008, Turin, Italy, September 1-5, 2008. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XII, 324 p pp., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Robben, A. C. G. M.: Social Trauma, National Mourning, and Collective Guilt in Post-Authoritarian Argentina, in: Violent Reverberations: Global Modalities of Trauma, edited by: Broch-Due, V. and Bertelsen, B. E., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 91–115, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Cryosphere Discussions.

Blog post
British DNA Isn’t Quite As British As You’d Expect:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: Assessment of the Commerce Department’s Report on Worker Demand and Supply, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Raines, J. R.: Exploring differences in teacher attitudes and instructional strategies between traditional and block schedule high schools: A comparison of two large schools, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: MOSCOW: THE BALLERINA SUES, New York Times, 27th October, E2, 2003.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Curran, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Curran, 2008; Keesing and Ostfeld, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keesing and Ostfeld, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (El-Khamisy et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Cryosphere Discussions
ISSN (online)1994-0440
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Water Science and Technology

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