How to format your references using the The Cryosphere Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Cryosphere Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A.: Axeing of website article sparks row at Max Planck, Nature, 422(6931), 460, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huberman, A. D. and El-Danaf, R. N.: Blindness: Assassins of eyesight, Nature, 527(7579), 456–457, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kent, A., Massar, S. and Silman, J.: Secure and robust transmission and verification of unknown quantum states in Minkowski space, Sci. Rep., 4, 3901, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Wright, T. J., Ebinger, C., Biggs, J., Ayele, A., Yirgu, G., Keir, D. and Stork, A.: Magma-maintained rift segmentation at continental rupture in the 2005 Afar dyking episode, Nature, 442(7100), 291–294, 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety: Guidelines for Acquisition Evaluation and Post Merger Integration, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2010.
An edited book
Sanayei, A., Zelinka, I. and Rössler, O. E., Eds.: ISCS 2013: Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Estep, P. and Hoekstra, A.: The Leverage and Centrality of Mind, in How Should Humanity Steer the Future?, edited by A. Aguirre, B. Foster, and Z. Merali, pp. 37–47, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Cryosphere Discussions.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: The Ice of Ceres Tell Us About Its Changing Tilt, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: USDA Research and Extension Agencies: Missions, Structures, and Budgets, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker, B. R.: Schizophrenia-spectrum behavior and peer responses to individuals with social anhedonia, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Court Rules Coach’s Violations Are Not a Form of Free Speech, New York Times, 22nd June, D6, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2003; Huberman and El-Danaf, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huberman and El-Danaf, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wright et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Cryosphere Discussions
ISSN (online)1994-0440
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Water Science and Technology

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