How to format your references using the The Cryosphere Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Cryosphere Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vedral, V.: Quantifying entanglement in macroscopic systems, Nature, 453(7198), 1004–1007, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Humphries, M. J. and Mould, A. P.: Structure. An anthropomorphic integrin, Science, 294(5541), 316–317, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rodríguez-Muñoz, R., Ojanguren, A. F. and Tregenza, T.: Comment on “International conservation policy delivers benefits for birds in Europe,” Science, 319(5866), 1042; author reply 1042, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Althorpe, S. C., Fernández-Alonso, F., Bean, B. D., Ayers, J. D., Pomerantz, A. E., Zare, R. N. and Wrede, E.: Observation and interpretation of a time-delayed mechanism in the hydrogen exchange reaction, Nature, 416(6876), 67–70, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, R. J., Groundwater, P. W., Todd, A. and Worsley, A. J.: Antibacterial Agents, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK., 2012.
An edited book
Feng, S., Huang, W., Wang, J., Wang, M. and Zha, J., Eds.: Low-carbon City and New-type Urbanization: Proceedings of Chinese Low-carbon City Development International Conference, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Analide, C., Abelha, A., Machado, J. and Neves, J.: An Agent Based Approach to the Selection Dilemma in CBR, in Intelligent Distributed Computing, Systems and Applications: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2008, Catania, Italy, 2008, edited by C. Badica, G. Mangioni, V. Carchiolo, and D. D. Burdescu, pp. 35–44, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Cryosphere Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Researchers Narrow In On Common Cystic Fibrosis Infection, IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Propane and Heating Oil: Federal Oversight of the Propane Education and Research Council and National Oilheat Research Alliance Should Be Strengthened, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmberg, M. B.: Alternative nitrogen for subsequent southern switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production using cool-season legumes, Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS., 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: Indomitable Russell Values One Accolade Above the Rest, New York Times, 13th February, SP1, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vedral, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Humphries and Mould, 2001; Vedral, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Humphries and Mould, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Althorpe et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Cryosphere Discussions
ISSN (online)1994-0440
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Water Science and Technology

Other styles