How to format your references using the The Cryosphere Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Cryosphere Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peto, J.: Cancer epidemiology in the last century and the next decade, Nature, 411, 390–395, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kalaany, N. Y. and Sabatini, D. M.: Tumours with PI3K activation are resistant to dietary restriction, Nature, 458, 725–731, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Waelti, P., Dickinson, A., and Schultz, W.: Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory, Nature, 412, 43–48, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Harris, R. G., Herzog, E. L., Bruscia, E. M., Grove, J. E., Van Arnam, J. S., and Krause, D. S.: Lack of a fusion requirement for development of bone marrow-derived epithelia, Science, 305, 90–93, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levin, M. A. and Kalal, T. T.: Improving Product Reliability, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
İnan, E. and Kırış, A. (Eds.): Vibration Problems ICOVP 2005, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XVIII, 550 p pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Memela, S. and Maharaj, B.: Challenges Facing Refugee Women. A Critical Review, in: Global Change and Human Mobility, edited by: Domínguez-Mujica, J., Springer, Singapore, 53–72, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Cryosphere Discussions.

Blog post
People Would Rather Experience An Electric Shock Than Be Alone With Their Thoughts:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA Procurement: The 1973 Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Contractor Selection, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berkland, M.: Strain analysis of a detachment shear zone, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B.: Green Day Is No. 1, New York Times, 17th October, C2, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peto, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Peto, 2001; Kalaany and Sabatini, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kalaany and Sabatini, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Harris et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Cryosphere Discussions
ISSN (online)1994-0440
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Water Science and Technology

Other styles