How to format your references using the Applied Adhesion Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Adhesion Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Delude C. Tumorigenesis: Testing ground for cancer stem cells. Nature. 2011;480:S43-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Leung CT, Brugge JS. Outgrowth of single oncogene-expressing cells from suppressive epithelial environments. Nature. 2012;482:410–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Saper CB, Scammell TE, Lu J. Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature. 2005;437:1257–63.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wu Y, Zhang X, Pan H, Deng W, Zhang X, Zhang X, et al. In-situ device integration of large-area patterned organic nanowire arrays for high-performance optical sensors. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3248.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Vitale J, Len IH. Zero Limits. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Jiao Z. Distributed-Order Dynamic Systems: Stability, Simulation, Applications and Perspectives. Chen Y, Podlubny I, editors. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Timotheou S, Panayiotou CG, Polycarpou MM. Transportation Systems: Monitoring, Control, and Security. In: Kyriakides E, Polycarpou M, editors. Intelligent Monitoring, Control, and Security of Critical Infrastructure Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 125–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Adhesion Science.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Dwarf Galaxies Around The Milky Way Agree With Dark Matter Model [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. OJJDP Discretionary Grant Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 May. Report No.: GGD-96-111R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Boyle CN. Support program for transition age youth: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Kershaw Delivers His Best Playoff Performance, Leaving Cubs Flustered. New York Times. 2016 Oct 17;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Adhesion Science
AbbreviationAppl. Adhes. Sci.
ISSN (online)2196-4351

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