How to format your references using the BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Buffett BA. Tidal dissipation and the strength of the Earth’s internal magnetic field. Nature. 2010;468:952–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Margoliash D, Tchernichovski O. DEVELOPMENT. Marmoset kids actually listen. Science. 2015;349:688–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jacobson MZ, Colella WG, Golden DM. Cleaning the air and improving health with hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Science. 2005;308:1901–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Garzione CN, Hoke GD, Libarkin JC, Withers S, MacFadden B, Eiler J, et al. Rise of the Andes. Science. 2008;320:1304–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sauter M. 3G, 4G and Beyond-Bringing Networks, Devices and the Web Together. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Falco MD, Iaquaniello G, Centi G, editors. CO2: A Valuable Source of Carbon. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lacruz CR, Sáenz de Santamaría J, Bardales RH. Normal Brain and Gliosis. In: Saénz de Santamaría J, Bardales RH, editors. Central Nervous System Intraoperative Cytopathology. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 45–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. These TripAdvisor Reviews Of Scientific And Natural Wonders Are Unbelievably Weird. IFLScience. 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/tripadvisor-reviews-scientific-natural-wonders-unbelievably-weird/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Federal Government Making Progress But Critical Issues Must Still Be Addressed to Minimize Disruptions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Backfish M. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab’s Main Injector. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. Five Smart Moves and Five Big Mistakes. New York Times. 2007;:F4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
AbbreviationBMC Pregnancy Childbirth
ISSN (online)1471-2393
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology

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