How to format your references using the BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kato T. Self-assembly of phase-segregated liquid crystal structures. Science. 2002;295:2414–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Byers J, Dunn S. Bateman in nature: predation on offspring reduces the potential for sexual selection. Science. 2012;338:802–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Cronberg N, Natcheva R, Hedlund K. Microarthropods mediate sperm transfer in mosses. Science. 2006;313:1255.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Pokholok DK, Zeitlinger J, Hannett NM, Reynolds DB, Young RA. Activated signal transduction kinases frequently occupy target genes. Science. 2006;313:533–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Fabozzi FJ, Drake PP. Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Edenhofer O, Wallacher J, Lotze-Campen H, Reder M, Knopf B, Müller J, editors. Climate Change, Justice and Sustainability: Linking Climate and Development Policy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Milton KA, Schwinger J. Variational Principles for Harmonic Time Dependence. In: Schwinger J, editor. Electromagnetic Radiation: Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 79–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.

Blog post
1. Fang J. New 4D Ultrasound Scans Reveal Effects of Smoking on a Fetus. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/new-4d-ultrasound-scans-reveal-effects-smoking-fetus/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. International School Feeding: USDA’s Oversight of the McGovern-Dole Food for Education Program Needs Improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Luong W. An identity building program for American-born children of Southeast Asian refugees. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. If You Can’t Stand the Name, Get Out of Hell’s Kitchen. New York Times. 2002;:144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
AbbreviationBMC Pregnancy Childbirth
ISSN (online)1471-2393
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology

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