How to format your references using the BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Köhling R. Neuroscience. GABA becomes exciting. Science. 2002;298:1350–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Carlip S, Vaidya S. Cosmology: Do black holes constrain varying constants? Nature. 2003;421:498.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhang Z, Shibahara K, Stillman B. PCNA connects DNA replication to epigenetic inheritance in yeast. Nature. 2000;408:221–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Larison JR, Likens GE, Fitzpatrick JW, Crock JG. Cadmium toxicity among wildlife in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Nature. 2000;406:181–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Thyagarajan KS. Still Image and Video Compression with MATLAB. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Menetrey J, Zaffagnini S, Fritschy D, Dijk N van, editors. ESSKA Instructional Course Lecture Book: Geneva 2012. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Doak DF, Bakker VJ, Goldstein BE, Hale B. What Is the Future of Conservation? In: Wuerthner G, Crist E, Butler T, editors. Protecting the Wild: Parks and Wilderness, the Foundation for Conservation. Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics; 2015. p. 27–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. When Exploding Whales Goes Horribly Wrong. IFLScience. 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA Facilities: Challenges to Achieving Reductions and Efficiencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. De La Cruz E. School social work programing for an elementary school: A grant writing project. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rampell C. Outsourced Chores Come Back Home. New York Times. 2009;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
AbbreviationBMC Pregnancy Childbirth
ISSN (online)1471-2393
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology

Other styles