How to format your references using the Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt, S. (2013). Bacteriology: a caring culture. Nature, 504(7480), S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hollowed, A. B., & Sundby, S. (2014). Ecology. Change is coming to the northern oceans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6188), 1084–1085.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, D. E., Zuber, M. T., & Neumann, G. A. (2001). Seasonal variations of snow depth on Mars. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5549), 2141–2146.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Waltereit, P., Brandt, O., Trampert, A., Grahn, H. T., Menniger, J., Ramsteiner, M., et al. (2000). Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes. Nature, 406(6798), 865–868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samonas, M. (2015). Financial Forecasting, Analysis, and Modelling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sharpe, M., & Nickelson, D. (Eds.). (2014). Secularisations and Their Debates: Perspectives on the Return of Religion in the Contemporary West (Vol. 5). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Stangenberg, F., Breitenbücher, R., Bruhns, O. T., Hartmann, D., Höffer, R., Kuhl, D., & Meschke, G. (2009). Future Life Time Oriented Design Concepts. In R. Breitenbücher, O. T. Bruhns, D. Hartmann, R. Höffer, D. Kuhl, & G. Meschke (Eds.), Lifetime-Oriented Structural Design Concepts (pp. 653–659). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, November 6). Stunning New Photos Of Antares Rocket Explosion Released By NASA. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Job Training Partnership Act, Title III Dislocated Worker Program (No. 128415). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall, D. (2015). Resistance, reluctance, and revelation: Examining faculty perceptions of online learning options at a Faith-Based university (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017, March 20). Teaching Web-Savvy Students to Develop Fake-News Filters. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeWeerdt 2013).
This sentence cites two references (DeWeerdt 2013; Hollowed and Sundby 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hollowed and Sundby 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Waltereit et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology
AbbreviationJ. Cross. Cult. Gerontol.
ISSN (print)0169-3816
ISSN (online)1573-0719
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Health(social science)

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