How to format your references using the Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyerowitz, E. M. (2002). Plants compared to animals: the broadest comparative study of development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5559), 1482–1485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adam, C., & Vidal, V. (2010). Mantle flow drives the subsidence of oceanic plates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5974), 83–85.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gros, J., Serralbo, O., & Marcelle, C. (2009). WNT11 acts as a directional cue to organize the elongation of early muscle fibres. Nature, 457(7229), 589–593.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Choudhury, D., Suzuki, T., Tokura, Y., & Taguchi, Y. (2014). Tuning structural instability toward enhanced magnetocaloric effect around room temperature in MnCo(1-x)Zn(x)Ge. Scientific reports, 4, 7544.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam, M. R., & Speight, J. G. (2016). Peak Energy: Myth or Reality? Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nagel, W. E., Kröner, D. H., & Resch, M. M. (Eds.). (2015). High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering ‘14: Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hsu, C.-L., Lin, Y.-L., Wu, T.-C., & Su, C.-H. (2010). Threshold Convertible Authenticated Encryption Scheme for Hierarchical Organizations. In T.-H. Kim, A. C.-C. Chang, M. Li, C. Rong, C. Z. Patrikakis, & D. Ślęzak (Eds.), Communication and Networking: International Conference, FGCN 2010, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2010, Jeju Island, Korea, December 13-15, 2010. Proceedings, Part I (pp. 23–36). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 18). Spectacular Solar Eruption Caught On Camera. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Federal Education Funding: Overview of K-12 and Early Childhood Education Programs (No. GAO-10-51). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rich, J. B. (2009). Guinevere takes her seat at the Round Table—or does she? Moving a primary Western myth forward (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski, S. (2015, November 20). Where Charter Schools Outperform. New York Times, p. BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meyerowitz 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Adam and Vidal 2010; Meyerowitz 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Adam and Vidal 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Choudhury et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology
AbbreviationJ. Cross. Cult. Gerontol.
ISSN (print)0169-3816
ISSN (online)1573-0719
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Health(social science)

Other styles