How to format your references using the Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cock, M. (2010). Biopiracy rules should not block biological control. Nature, 467(7314), 369.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wignall, A. E., & Herberstein, M. E. (2013). Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders. Scientific reports, 3, 3557.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mézard, M., Parisi, G., & Zecchina, R. (2002). Analytic and algorithmic solution of random satisfiability problems. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5582), 812–815.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nystul, T. G., Goldmark, J. P., Padilla, P. A., & Roth, M. B. (2003). Suspended animation in C. elegans requires the spindle checkpoint. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5647), 1038–1041.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz, E. R., Saade, G. R., Miller, H., & Davidson, C. M. (2016). Obstetric Clinical Algorithms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ehrhardt, J., & Lorenz, C. (Eds.). (2013). 4D Modeling and Estimation of Respiratory Motion for Radiation Therapy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zeinalipour-Yazti, D., Kalogeraki, V., Gunopulos, D., Mitra, A., Banerjee, A., & Najjar, W. (2005). Towards In-Situ Data Storage in Sensor Databases. In P. Bozanis & E. N. Houstis (Eds.), Advances in Informatics: 10th Panhellenic Conference on Informatics, PCI 2005, Volas, Greece, November 11-13, 2005. Proceedings (pp. 36–46). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, September 6). Vitamin D May Protect Against Severe Asthma Attacks And Hospitalisation. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Digital Television Transition: Information on the Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program and Consumer Participation in the Program (No. GAO-08-1161T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sahib, S. S. (2010). Numerical solutions of Maxwell’s equations in 1D, 2D, and 3D via the finite element method (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, January 11). Subject Changes, But Ryan Talks On. New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cock 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Cock 2010; Wignall and Herberstein 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wignall and Herberstein 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Nystul et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology
AbbreviationJ. Cross. Cult. Gerontol.
ISSN (print)0169-3816
ISSN (online)1573-0719
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Health(social science)

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