How to format your references using the Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Przeworski, M. (2005). Genetics. Motivating hotspots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5746), 247–248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tang, Y., & Cohen, A. E. (2011). Enhanced enantioselectivity in excitation of chiral molecules by superchiral light. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6027), 333–336.
A journal article with 3 authors
Provenzano, V., Shapiro, A. J., & Shull, R. D. (2004). Reduction of hysteresis losses in the magnetic refrigerant Gd5Ge2Si2 by the addition of iron. Nature, 429(6994), 853–857.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jia, H., Aw, W., Saito, K., Hanate, M., Hasebe, Y., & Kato, H. (2014). Eggshell membrane ameliorates hepatic fibrogenesis in human C3A cells and rats through changes in PPARγ-Endothelin 1 signaling. Scientific reports, 4, 7473.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chiasson, A. D. (2016). Geothermal Heat Pump and Heat Engine Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kitchen, J., Tidwell, D., & Fitzgerald, L. (Eds.). (2016). Self-Study and Diversity II: Inclusive Teacher Education for a Diverse World. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Oh, S. H., & Lhm, J. T. (2007). CDMA2000 1X & 1X EV-DO. In Y. Park & F. Adachi (Eds.), Enhanced Radio Access Technologies for Next Generation Mobile Communication (pp. 151–190). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2014, October 1). Does My Voice Really Sound Like That? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). District of Columbia: Performance Report Shows Continued Progress (No. GAO-03-693). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Noxon, C. (2017). Sedentism, Agriculture, and the Neolithic Demographic Transition: Insights from Jōmon Paleodemography (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2005, November 29). Justices Reject F.B.I. Translator’s Appeal on Termination. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Przeworski 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Przeworski 2005; Tang and Cohen 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tang and Cohen 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Jia et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology
AbbreviationJ. Cross. Cult. Gerontol.
ISSN (print)0169-3816
ISSN (online)1573-0719
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Health(social science)

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