How to format your references using the Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Good, M. F. (2013). Immunology. Pasteur approach to a malaria vaccine may take the lead. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6152), 1352–1353.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, B. H., & Kwon, J. W. (2014). Metal catalyst for low-temperature growth of controlled zinc oxide nanowires on arbitrary substrates. Scientific reports, 4, 4379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kurland, C. G., Collins, L. J., & Penny, D. (2006). Genomics and the irreducible nature of eukaryote cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5776), 1011–1014.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zubieta, J. K., Smith, Y. R., Bueller, J. A., Xu, Y., Kilbourn, M. R., Jewett, D. M., et al. (2001). Regional mu opioid receptor regulation of sensory and affective dimensions of pain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5528), 311–315.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tanwir, S., & Perros, H. (2014). VBR Video Traffic Models. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Park, N.-G., Grätzel, M., & Miyasaka, T. (Eds.). (2016). Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Photovoltaics: From Fundamentals to Device Architectures. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lagerlund, H. (2008). The Unity of the Soul and Contrary Appetites in Medieval Philosophy. In T. M. Lennon & R. J. Stainton (Eds.), The Achilles of Rationalist Psychology (pp. 75–91). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2015, November 14). This Drug Reverses The Effects of Opioid Overdoses. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Basic Sources of International Petroleum Statistics (No. 112639). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chambers, S. (2008). Telecommunications megamergers: Impact on employee morale and turnover intention (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hubbard, G. (2015, January 21). Obama’s Bad Economic Ideas. New York Times, p. A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Good 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Good 2013; Kim and Kwon 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Kwon 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zubieta et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology
AbbreviationJ. Cross. Cult. Gerontol.
ISSN (print)0169-3816
ISSN (online)1573-0719
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Health(social science)

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