How to format your references using the Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Müller, B. (2011). Physics. The limits of ordinary matter. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6037), 1513–1514.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pedraza, J. M., & Paulsson, J. (2008). Effects of molecular memory and bursting on fluctuations in gene expression. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5861), 339–343.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barber, V. A., Juday, G. P., & Finney, B. P. (2000). Reduced growth of Alaskan white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress. Nature, 405(6787), 668–673.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Subramaniam, A. B., Abkarian, M., Mahadevan, L., & Stone, H. A. (2005). Colloid science: non-spherical bubbles. Nature, 438(7070), 930.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Landragin, F. (2013). Man-Machine Dialogue. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Biscari, P. (2013). Meccanica Razionale. (G. Saccomandi, T. Ruggeri, & M. Vianello, Eds.) (Vol. 69). Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Brandt, C. (2016). Anxiety. In M. Mula (Ed.), Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Epilepsy (pp. 53–67). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 26). Let’s Call It: 30 Years Of Above Average Temperatures Means The Climate Has Changed. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Vulnerabilities in the Stafford Student Loan Program (No. T-HRD-91-33). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sitterding, M. C. (2014). Situation awareness and the selection of interruption handling strategies during the medication administration process: A qualitative study (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, J. (2014, February 12). Mayor’s Call Did Not Prompt Pastor’s Release, Police Say. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Müller 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Müller 2011; Pedraza and Paulsson 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pedraza and Paulsson 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Subramaniam et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology
AbbreviationJ. Cross. Cult. Gerontol.
ISSN (print)0169-3816
ISSN (online)1573-0719
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Health(social science)

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