How to format your references using the The Computer Games Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Computer Games Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bolfan-Casanova, N. (2007). Geochemistry. Fuel for plate tectonics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5810), 338–339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoerling, M., & Kumar, A. (2003). The perfect ocean for drought. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5607), 691–694.
A journal article with 3 authors
Orlove, B. S., Chiang, J. C., & Cane, M. A. (2000). Forecasting Andean rainfall and crop yield from the influence of El Nino on Pleiades visibility. Nature, 403(6765), 68–71.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ingman, M., Kaessmann, H., Pääbo, S., & Gyllensten, U. (2000). Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans. Nature, 408(6813), 708–713.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartlett, K. (2016). The Experience of History. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Klemm, R. (2013). Gold and Gold Mining in Ancient Egypt and Nubia: Geoarchaeology of the Ancient Gold Mining Sites in the Egyptian and Sudanese Eastern Deserts. (D. Klemm, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Keshmiri, S., & Payandeh, S. (2011). Toward Opportunistic Collaboration in Target Pursuit Problems. In M. Kamel, F. Karray, W. Gueaieb, & A. Khamis (Eds.), Autonomous and Intelligent Systems: Second International Conference, AIS 2011, Burnaby, BC, Canada, June 22-24, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 31–40). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Computer Games Journal.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, August 3). Scientists Have Found The Switch That Sends The Brain To Sleep. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Meeting the Aging Aircraft Challenge: Status and Opportunities (No. T-RCED-90-2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Binkley, P. M. (2012). Relationship of Graduate Student Involvement to Graduate Alumni Donor Behavior (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M. (2017, June 10). The Top Uniformed Officer on Rikers Island Steps Down, Ahead of Schedule. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bolfan-Casanova 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Bolfan-Casanova 2007; Hoerling and Kumar 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoerling and Kumar 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ingman et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Computer Games Journal
ISSN (online)2052-773X

Other styles