How to format your references using the Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adams J. Collaborations: The fourth age of research. Nature. 2013;497(7451):557-560.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirts M, Pande VS. COMPUTING: Screen Savers of the World Unite! Science. 2000;290(5498):1903-1904.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shu Y, Hasenstaub A, McCormick DA. Turning on and off recurrent balanced cortical activity. Nature. 2003;423(6937):288-293.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Aizenberg J, Muller DA, Grazul JL, Hamann DR. Direct fabrication of large micropatterned single crystals. Science. 2003;299(5610):1205-1208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fisher HG, Forrest HS, Grossel SS, et al. Emergency Relief System Design Using DIERS Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1993.
An edited book
Artmann GM, Minger S, Hescheler J, eds. Stem Cell Engineering: Principles and Applications. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Tubaikh JA. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. In: Al-Tubaikh JA, ed. Internal Medicine: An Illustrated Radiological Guide. Springer; 2010:29-38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports.

Blog post
Davis J. Researchers Create A Computer That Works Using Water. IFLScience. Published June 10, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Information Concerning Equipment Outages at Two Kansas City Area Facilities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Vlack KA. Puaxant Tuvip: Powerlands Southern Paiute Cultural Landscapes and Pilgrimage Trails. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Grapple With Whether Public Employees Enjoy Free-Speech Rights on the Job. New York Times. October 13, 2005:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Dentistry Case Reports
ISSN (print)2352-5894

Other styles