How to format your references using the Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D. Spending stalemate. Nature. 2007;449(7165):962.
A journal article with 2 authors
Federman SR, Young ED. Comment on “Experimental test of self-shielding in vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of CO.” Science. 2009;324(5934):1516; author reply 1516.
A journal article with 3 authors
Squartini T, van Lelyveld I, Garlaschelli D. Early-warning signals of topological collapse in interbank networks. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3357.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sena G, Wang X, Liu HY, Hofhuis H, Birnbaum KD. Organ regeneration does not require a functional stem cell niche in plants. Nature. 2009;457(7233):1150-1153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe HE. Electromagnetic Propagation in Multi-Mode Random Media. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2001.
An edited book
Dib N, Taylor DA, Diethrich EB, eds. Stem Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering for Cardiovascular Repair: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications. Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Pierce R, Stacey K. Using Dynamic Geometry to Bring the Real World Into the Classroom. In: Bu L, Schoen R, eds. Model-Centered Learning: Pathways to Mathematical Understanding Using GeoGebra. SensePublishers; 2011:41-55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Construction Workers Unearthed Something Very Unexpected While Digging A Hole. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. K-12 Education: Characteristics of the Investing in Innovation Fund. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanton B. On Location: Race and Family in the Poetry of Sonia Sanchez, June Jordan, and Cathy Song. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. IN REVERSAL OF COURSE, JUSTICES, 5-4, BACK BAN ON ABORTION METHOD. New York Times. April 19, 2007:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Dentistry Case Reports
ISSN (print)2352-5894

Other styles