How to format your references using the Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nusse R. Cancer. Converging on beta-catenin in Wilms tumor. Science. 2007;316(5827):988-989.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vazquez JA, Reid MR. Probing the accumulation history of the voluminous Toba magma. Science. 2004;305(5686):991-994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moore GWK, Holdsworth G, Alverson K. Climate change in the North Pacific region over the past three centuries. Nature. 2002;420(6914):401-403.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang D, Zhang Z, Zhu Z, Liang B. Magnetic structure and magnetic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons with sawtooth zigzag edges. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7587.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bleistein S. Rapid Organizational Change. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Smith M, Cette G, Bauer F, Delsen L, eds. Comparative Analyses of Operating Hours and Working Times in the European Union. Physica-Verlag HD; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Agoshkov VI, Kamenschikov LP, Karepova ED, Shaidurov VV. Numerical Solution of Some Direct and Inverse Mathematical Problems for Tidal Flows. In: Krause E, Shokin YI, Resch M, Shokina N, eds. Computational Science and High Performance Computing III: The 3rd Russian-German Advanced Research Workshop, Novosibirsk, Russia, July 23 - 27, 2007. Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design. Springer; 2008:31-43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Rare “Sea Serpent” Washes Up Dead On California Beach. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Interim Report on Safety Belt and Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woodland RJ. Investigating the Role of the Mid-Atlantic Inner Continental Shelf as a Marine Finfish Nursery: A Comparative Approach. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. Scenic Lakes and, Soon, a Town Center. New York Times. August 2, 2017:RE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Dentistry Case Reports
ISSN (print)2352-5894

Other styles