How to format your references using the Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Charlesworth B. Evolution. Variation catches a ride. Science. 2010;330(6002):326-327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Garcia-Castellanos D, Villaseñor A. Messinian salinity crisis regulated by competing tectonics and erosion at the Gibraltar arc. Nature. 2011;480(7377):359-363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Henrich J, Heine SJ, Norenzayan A. Most people are not WEIRD. Nature. 2010;466(7302):29.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hanauer DI, Jacobs-Sera D, Pedulla ML, Cresawn SG, Hendrix RW, Hatfull GF. Inquiry learning. Teaching scientific inquiry. Science. 2006;314(5807):1880-1881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Conrick C IV, Hanson S. Vertical Option Spreads. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Bulajich Manfrino R. Topics in Algebra and Analysis: Preparing for the Mathematical Olympiad. (Gómez Ortega JA, Valdez Delgado R, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Penumetcha K, Jerjes W, Patel N, Upile T. ENT Emergencies. In: Shergill I, Arya M, Upile T, Arya N, Dasgupta P, eds. Surgical Emergencies in Clinical Practice. Springer; 2013:73-98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports.

Blog post
Luntz S. A Computer Has Reportedly Passed Turing Test For The First Time. IFLScience. Published June 9, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rail Safety: Improved Human Capital Planning Could Address Emerging Safety Oversight Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zavarella CA. Computer -based instruction and remedial mathematics: A study of student retention at a Florida community college. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. In Great Neck, a Debate On Firefighter Housing. New York Times. March 26, 2006:14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Dentistry Case Reports
ISSN (print)2352-5894

Other styles