How to format your references using the The Ceylon Journal of Medical Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ceylon Journal of Medical Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham S. Exploring the public domain. Nature. 2004 Apr 15;428(6984):774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Faccenna C, Becker TW. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection. Nature. 2010 Jun 3;465(7298):602–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hempson GP, Archibald S, Bond WJ. A continent-wide assessment of the form and intensity of large mammal herbivory in Africa. Science. 2015 Nov 27;350(6264):1056–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ruiz-Pérez NJ, Arriaga-Alba M, Sánchez-Navarrete J, Camacho-Carranza R, Hernández-Ojeda S, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of Heterotheca inuloides. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 23;4:6743.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ytterdal T, Cheng Y, Fjeldly TA. Device Modeling for Analog and RF CMOS Circuit Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2003.
An edited book
Virvou M, Jain LC, editors. Intelligent Interactive Systems in Knowledge-Based Environments. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. XI, 200 p. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 104).
A chapter in an edited book
Davenport A. “Beauty Sleeping in the Lap of Horror”: Landscape Aesthetics and Gothic Pleasures, from The Castle of Otranto to Video Games. In: Yang SR, Healey K, editors. Gothic Landscapes: Changing Eras, Changing Cultures, Changing Anxieties. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 71–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ceylon Journal of Medical Science.

Blog post
Andrews R. How Powerful Was A T. Rex’s Bite? Science Now Has An Answer For You.. [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Status of FAA’s Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Sep. Report No.: GAO-02-1071.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson KF. Persons and how we trace them: What Johnston got wrong [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. In Comics World, Needy Have Heroes Of Their Own. New York Times. 2012 Nov 9;F12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ceylon Journal of Medical Science
AbbreviationCeylon J. Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0011-2232

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