How to format your references using the The Ceylon Journal of Medical Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ceylon Journal of Medical Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schnabel J. Amyloid: little proteins, big clues. Nature. 2011 Jul 13;475(7355):S12-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mukhopadhyay S, Linstedt AD. Manganese blocks intracellular trafficking of Shiga toxin and protects against Shiga toxicosis. Science. 2012 Jan 20;335(6066):332–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz W, O’Neill BC, Scherbov S. Demographics. Europe’s population at a turning point. Science. 2003 Mar 28;299(5615):1991–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang X, Mi W, Wang X, Cheng Y, Schwingenschlögl U. The interface between Gd and monolayer MoS2: a first-principles study. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec 8;4:7368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gelbaum BR. Modern Real and Complex Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1995.
An edited book
Salzmann N, Huggel C, Nussbaumer SU, Ziervogel G, editors. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies – An Upstream-downstream Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. X, 292 p. 76 illus., 64 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Rahwan I, Amgoud L. An Argumentation-Based Approach for Practical Reasoning. In: Maudet N, Parsons S, Rahwan I, editors. Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems: Third International Workshop, ArgMAS 2006 Hakodate, Japan, May 8, 2006 Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 74–90. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ceylon Journal of Medical Science.

Blog post
Fang J. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Robot Makes You Feel Like There’s a Ghost Behind You. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Feb. Report No.: GAO-02-379R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks ED. Teaching teachers: A study of teacher educators’ perceptions of the effect of meeting mandated NCATE standards [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. Overcoming Setbacks and Gaining a Certification. New York Times. 2016 Nov 14;A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ceylon Journal of Medical Science
AbbreviationCeylon J. Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0011-2232

Other styles