How to format your references using the The Ceylon Journal of Medical Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ceylon Journal of Medical Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prewitt K. Sociology. What if we give a census and no one comes? Science. 2004 Jun 4;304(5676):1452–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Larson HJ, Ghinai I. Lessons from polio eradication. Nature. 2011 May 26;473(7348):446–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsuchida T, Koga R, Fukatsu T. Host plant specialization governed by facultative symbiont. Science. 2004 Mar 26;303(5666):1989.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Abo-Shaeer JR, Raman C, Vogels JM, Ketterle W. Observation of vortex lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates. Science. 2001 Apr 20;292(5516):476–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vicat-Blanc P, Soudan S, Guillier R, Goglin B. Computing Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2013.
An edited book
Katayama Y, Maeda T, Kuroiwa T, editors. Brain Edema XV. Vienna: Springer; 2013. XVII, 335 p. (Acta Neurochirurgica Supplement; vol. 118).
A chapter in an edited book
Osman T, Thakker D, Schaefer G. Semantics-Based Intelligent Indexing and Retrieval of Digital Images – A Case Study. In: Chbeir R, Badr Y, Abraham A, Hassanien AE, editors. Emergent Web Intelligence: Advanced Information Retrieval. London: Springer; 2010. p. 117–34. (Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ceylon Journal of Medical Science.

Blog post
Davis J. Scientists Create Amazing 3D Cast Of Renowned Philosopher’s Brain. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Public Community Colleges and Technical Schools: Most Schools Use Both Credit and Noncredit Programs for Workforce Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Oct. Report No.: GAO-05-4.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bouyer J. Temporary Leadership in Athletics: The Experiences of Interim NCAA Directors of Athletics [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Season Of Change For Emmys. New York Times. 2017 Jul 13;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ceylon Journal of Medical Science
AbbreviationCeylon J. Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0011-2232

Other styles