How to format your references using the Innovation and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovation and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Owens, Brian. 2014. “Melanoma.” Nature 515 (7527): S109.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fernandes, Vilaiwan M., and Claude Desplan. 2015. “Neurobiology: Inversion in the Worm.” Nature 523 (7558): 44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roche, D., D. Paillard, and E. Cortijo. 2004. “Constraints on the Duration and Freshwater Release of Heinrich Event 4 through Isotope Modelling.” Nature 432 (7015): 379–382.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Grenfell, Bryan T., Oliver G. Pybus, Julia R. Gog, James L. N. Wood, Janet M. Daly, Jenny A. Mumford, and Edward C. Holmes. 2004. “Unifying the Epidemiological and Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathogens.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5656): 327–332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scanlan, Eugene A. 2009. Fundraising Consultants. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fomin, Fedor V. 2010. Exact Exponential Algorithms. Edited by Dieter Kratsch. Texts in Theoretical Computer Science. An EATCS Series. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Oliveira, Luis B., Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky, Chris J. M. Verhoeven, and Manuel M. Silva. 2008. “Quadrature LC-Oscillator.” In Analysis and Design of Quadrature Oscillators, edited by Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky, Chris J. M. Verhoeven, and Manuel M. Silva, 81–98. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovation and Development.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. “Carbon Emissions In The UK The Lowest Since 1894.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. FAA Budget: Agency Faces Key Management Challenges on Major Issues. T-RCED-94-191. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Batistick, Susan Ashley. 2015. “Reclaiming One’s Gold: Imagining the Inner Child Through the Art of Therapeutic Fairy Tale Writing.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, Joseph. 2014. “Police Study Use of Force; May Issue More Tasers.” New York Times, July 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Owens 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Owens 2014; Fernandes and Desplan 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fernandes and Desplan 2015)
  • Three authors: (Roche, Paillard, and Cortijo 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Grenfell et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovation and Development
AbbreviationInnov. Dev.
ISSN (print)2157-930X
ISSN (online)2157-9318
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles