How to format your references using the Innovation and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovation and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Müller, R. Dietmar. 2010. “Geophysics. Sedimentary Basins Feeling the Heat from Below.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5993): 769–770.
A journal article with 2 authors
Najemnik, Jiri, and Wilson S. Geisler. 2005. “Optimal Eye Movement Strategies in Visual Search.” Nature 434 (7031): 387–391.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zenisek, D., J. A. Steyer, and W. Almers. 2000. “Transport, Capture and Exocytosis of Single Synaptic Vesicles at Active Zones.” Nature 406 (6798): 849–854.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hou, Xianguang, Mark Williams, David J. Siveter, Derek J. Siveter, Sarah Gabbott, David Holwell, and Thomas H. P. Harvey. 2014. “A Chancelloriid-like Metazoan from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7340.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Behme, Stefan. 2015. Manufacturing of Pharmaceutical Proteins. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Guillet, Fabrice, Gilbert Ritschard, and Djamel Abdelkader Zighed, eds. 2012. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Management: Volume 2. Vol. 398. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pyun, Su-Il, Heon-Cheol Shin, Jong-Won Lee, and Joo-Young Go. 2012. “Hydrogen Transport Under Impermeable Boundary Conditions.” In Electrochemistry of Insertion Materials for Hydrogen and Lithium, edited by Heon-Cheol Shin, Jong-Won Lee, and Joo-Young Go, 83–104. Monographs in Electrochemistry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovation and Development.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “What Happens If You Add Molten Aluminum To Dry Ice and Liquid Nitrogen?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. GAO Reviews of USDA Biotechnology Research Efforts and Regulatory Programs and Activities. 129809. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parihar, Robin. 2004. “Characterization of the Natural Killer Cell Cytokine Response to Antibody-Coated Tumor Cells.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas, Rick, and Elizabeth A. Harris. 2015. “Charge of Duct-Tape Assault at a School.” New York Times, October 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Müller 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Müller 2010; Najemnik and Geisler 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Najemnik and Geisler 2005)
  • Three authors: (Zenisek, Steyer, and Almers 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovation and Development
AbbreviationInnov. Dev.
ISSN (print)2157-930X
ISSN (online)2157-9318
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles