How to format your references using the Innovation and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovation and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner, John A. 2004. “Sustainable Hydrogen Production.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5686): 972–974.
A journal article with 2 authors
Russo, Christopher J., and Lori A. Passmore. 2014. “Electron Microscopy: Ultrastable Gold Substrates for Electron Cryomicroscopy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6215): 1377–1380.
A journal article with 3 authors
Garner, Ethan C., Christopher S. Campbell, and R. Dyche Mullins. 2004. “Dynamic Instability in a DNA-Segregating Prokaryotic Actin Homolog.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5698): 1021–1025.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder, Suraksha Agrawal, Yong-Gang Yao, Qing-Peng Kong, Chang Sun, Faisal Khan, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri, and Ya-Ping Zhang. 2006. “Comment on ‘Reconstructing the Origin of Andaman Islanders.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5760): 470; author reply 470.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grant, Gary. 2012. Ecosystem Services Come to Town. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Noblit, George W., ed. 2015. School Desegregation: Oral Histories toward Understanding the Effects of White Domination. Breakthroughs in the Sociology of Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmadi Behnam, Saeed, and Daniel Amyot. 2011. “Evolution of Goal-Driven Pattern Families for Business Process Modeling.” In E-Technologies: Transformation in a Connected World: 5th International Conference, MCETECH 2011, Les Diablerets, Switzerland, January 23-26, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Gilbert Babin, Katarina Stanoevska-Slabeva, and Peter Kropf, 46–61. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovation and Development.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “U.K. Is The Only G7 Country To INCREASE Fossil Fuel Subsidies.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Federal Aviation Administration: Observations on Selected Changes to FAA’s Funding and Budget Structure in the Administration’s Reauthorization Proposal. GAO-07-625T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chahine, Jennifer. 2013. “Social Workers’ Perceptions of Individuals Who Use Drugs and Alcohol Problematically.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2016. “A Circle of Hell: The Staff Meeting.” New York Times, October 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Turner 2004; Russo and Passmore 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Russo and Passmore 2014)
  • Three authors: (Garner, Campbell, and Mullins 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Palanichamy et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovation and Development
AbbreviationInnov. Dev.
ISSN (print)2157-930X
ISSN (online)2157-9318
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles