How to format your references using the Innovation and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovation and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bennett, Vickie C. 2012. “Geophysics. Probing the Mantle Past.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335 (6072): 1051–1052.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baum, Jake, and Alan F. Cowman. 2011. “Biochemistry. Revealing a Parasite’s Invasive Trick.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6041): 410–411.
A journal article with 3 authors
West, Steven, Natalia Gromak, and Nick J. Proudfoot. 2004. “Human 5’ --> 3’ Exonuclease Xrn2 Promotes Transcription Termination at Co-Transcriptional Cleavage Sites.” Nature 432 (7016): 522–525.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, Zhiheng, L. C. Feldman, N. H. Tolk, Zhenyu Zhang, and P. I. Cohen. 2006. “Desorption of H from Si(111) by Resonant Excitation of the Si-H Vibrational Stretch Mode.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5776): 1024–1026.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Ruyet, Didier, and Mylène Pischella. 2015. Digital Communications 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sharma, Deepansh. 2016. Biosurfactants of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Edited by Baljeet Singh Saharan and Shailly Kapil. 1st ed. 2016. SpringerBriefs in Microbiology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, John Z. Ming, and Yuhua Ji. 2016. “Lu Fo: Fusing Western and Daoist Poetics.” In Canadian-Daoist Poetics, Ethics, and Aesthetics: An Interdisciplinary and Cross-Cultural Study, edited by Yuhua Ji, 49–72. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovation and Development.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2017. “These Super Slow-Mo Videos Show A Viper Strike In All Its Glory.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Updated Status of Department of Education’s Information Systems. T-AIMD-99-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carolina, Demetrius S. 2009. “A Qualitative Study of the Healthcare Experiences and Health Information Acquisition of African American Men.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2010. “A Raid on Men’s Closets.” New York Times, June 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bennett 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bennett 2012; Baum and Cowman 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baum and Cowman 2011)
  • Three authors: (West, Gromak, and Proudfoot 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Liu et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovation and Development
AbbreviationInnov. Dev.
ISSN (print)2157-930X
ISSN (online)2157-9318
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles