How to format your references using the Innovation and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovation and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. 2000. “EarthScope. Deep Thoughts.” Nature 405 (6785): 390–392.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bradshaw, William E., and Christina M. Holzapfel. 2006. “Climate Change. Evolutionary Response to Rapid Climate Change.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5779): 1477–1478.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qvarnström, A., T. Pärt, and B. C. Sheldon. 2000. “Adaptive Plasticity in Mate Preference Linked to Differences in Reproductive Effort.” Nature 405 (6784): 344–347.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Araújo, Ascânio D., Eric J. R. Parteli, Thorsten Pöschel, José S. Andrade, and Hans J. Herrmann. 2013. “Numerical Modeling of the Wind Flow over a Transverse Dune.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 2858.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, A. K. Md Ehsanes, M. Arashi, and S. M. M. Tabatabaey. 2014. Statistical Inference for Models with Multivariate t -Distributed Errors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kim, Young-Chan, ed. 2016. Chinese Global Production Networks in ASEAN. Understanding China. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
van Heerden, Willem S., and Andries P. Engelbrecht. 2013. “Unsupervised Weight-Based Cluster Labeling for Self-Organizing Maps.” In Advances in Self-Organizing Maps: 9th International Workshop, WSOM 2012 Santiago, Chile, December 12-14, 2012 Proceedings, edited by Pablo A. Estévez, José C. Príncipe, and Pablo Zegers, 45–54. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovation and Development.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “What Happens To Your Gut If You Eat A Gold Pizza?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Aviation Safety: Certification and Approval Processes Are Generally Viewed as Working Well, but Better Evaluative Information Needed to Improve Efficiency. GAO-11-14. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simmons-Johnson, Nicole. 2012. “The Path to Graduation: A Model Interactive Web Site Design Supporting Doctoral Students.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Christopher. 2012. “Reshooting J. R., This Time on Home Territory.” New York Times, July 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton 2000; Bradshaw and Holzapfel 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bradshaw and Holzapfel 2006)
  • Three authors: (Qvarnström, Pärt, and Sheldon 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Araújo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovation and Development
AbbreviationInnov. Dev.
ISSN (print)2157-930X
ISSN (online)2157-9318
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles