How to format your references using the Environmental Sciences Europe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Sciences Europe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hansson GK (2007) Medicine. LIGHT hits the liver. Science 316:206–207
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheppard SS, Trujillo CA (2010) Detection of a trailing (L5) Neptune Trojan. Science 329:1304
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoon JW, Song SH, Magnusson R (2014) Ultrahigh-Q metallic nanocavity resonances with externally-amplified intracavity feedback. Sci Rep 4:7124
A journal article with 5 or more authors
McCarroll L, Paton MG, Karunaratne SH, et al (2000) Insecticides and mosquito-borne disease. Nature 407:961–962

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pines JM, Carpenter CR, Raja AS, Schuur JD (2012) Evidence-Based Emergency Care. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Arndt N (2012) Metals and Society: An Introduction to Economic Geology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Li Q, Lam JSL, Fan HSL (2014) Multi-link-ahead Conflicts Prediction in Dynamic Seaport Environments. In: Cai Y, Goei SL (eds) Simulations, Serious Games and Their Applications. Springer, Singapore, pp 69–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Sciences Europe.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Scientists Claim They’ve Solved What Makes The Bermuda Triangle So Deadly — But There’s A Problem. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Technology Transfer: DOE Has Fewer Partnerships, and They Rely More on Private Funding. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson GG (2013) Long-Term Effects of Care Management on Mortality, Hospitalizations, and Medicare Costs Among Chronically-Ill Medicare Beneficiaries. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robinson L (2015) Internal Injuries. New York Times BR21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Sciences Europe
AbbreviationEnviron. Sci. Eur.
ISSN (print)2190-4707
ISSN (online)2190-4715

Other styles