How to format your references using the Environmental Sciences Europe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Sciences Europe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Midgley PA (2011) Materials science. Electronic bonding revealed by electron diffraction. Science 331:1528–1529
A journal article with 2 authors
Blasius B, Stone L (2000) Ecology. Nonlinearity and the Moran effect. Nature 406:846–847
A journal article with 3 authors
Diemand J, Moore B, Stadel J (2005) Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe. Nature 433:389–391
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Haddock SHD, Dunn CW, Pugh PR, Schnitzler CE (2005) Bioluminescent and red-fluorescent lures in a deep-sea siphonophore. Science 309:263

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moll W, Moll A (2011) Schallschutz im Wohnungsbau. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Ah-King M (2013) Challenging Popular Myths of Sex, Gender and Biology. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Han KH, Park JW (2009) Object-Oriented Ladder Logic Development Framework Based on the Unified Modeling Language. In: Lee R, Hu G, Miao H (eds) Computer and Information Science 2009. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 33–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Sciences Europe.

Blog post
Taub B (2015) France To End Lifetime Ban On Gay Men Donating Blood. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) The President’s Second Special Message for FY 1983. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKelvey DM (2008) Relationships between attitudes of school-based administrators and inclusion practices of students with autism/Asperger’s syndrome. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Vanishing Patricians, and Then What? New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Sciences Europe
AbbreviationEnviron. Sci. Eur.
ISSN (print)2190-4707
ISSN (online)2190-4715

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