How to format your references using the Environmental Sciences Europe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Sciences Europe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D (2003) Safety doubts force rethink of embattled comet mission. Nature 421:198
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang X, Key JR (2003) Recent trends in Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties from space. Science 299:1725–1728
A journal article with 3 authors
Hassan MA, Mahmoodian R, Hamdi M (2014) Modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics (MSPH) for the analysis of centrifugally assisted TiC-Fe-Al2O3 combustion synthesis. Sci Rep 4:3724
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bernstein E, Caudy AA, Hammond SM, Hannon GJ (2001) Role for a bidentate ribonuclease in the initiation step of RNA interference. Nature 409:363–366

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henriksen RN (2015) Scale Invariance. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Qing A, Lee CK (2010) Differential Evolution in Electromagnetics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Baignères T, Vaudenay S (2006) Proving the Security of AES Substitution-Permutation Network. In: Preneel B, Tavares S (eds) Selected Areas in Cryptography: 12th International Workshop, SAC 2005, Kingston, ON, Canada, August 11-12, 2005, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 65–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Sciences Europe.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Top Ten Newly-Discovered Species. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Job Training Partnership Act: Services and Outcomes for Participants With Differing Needs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magnus JV (2017) Female Police Officers: The Influence of a Masculine Culture. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF (2006) An Animal Sanctuary Is Under Pressure to Move. New York Times LI10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Sciences Europe
AbbreviationEnviron. Sci. Eur.
ISSN (print)2190-4707
ISSN (online)2190-4715

Other styles