How to format your references using the Environmental Sciences Europe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Sciences Europe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain E (2008) Science careers. An adventurous physicist. Science 320:1517
A journal article with 2 authors
Badzey RL, Mohanty P (2005) Coherent signal amplification in bistable nanomechanical oscillators by stochastic resonance. Nature 437:995–998
A journal article with 3 authors
Wise C, Pawlyn M, Braungart M (2013) Eco-engineering: Living in a materials world. Nature 494:172–175
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tukiainen T, Villani A-C, Yen A, et al (2018) Corrigendum: Landscape of X chromosome inactivation across human tissues. Nature 555:274

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips JJ, Phillips P, Pulliam A (2014) Measuring ROI in Environment, Health, and Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bonifacio GT (2012) Feminism and Migration: Cross-Cultural Engagements. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Cleophas TJ, Zwinderman AH (2014) Loglinear Models for Assessing Incident Rates with Varying Incident Risks (12 Populations with Different Drink Consumption Patterns). In: Zwinderman AH (ed) Machine Learning in Medicine - Cookbook Three. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 35–38

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Sciences Europe.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Don’t Believe the Hype – 10 Persistent Cancer Myths Debunked. In: IFLScience.’t-believe-hype-–-10-persistent-cancer-myths-debunked0/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Airline Competition: Higher Fares and Less Competition Continue at Concentrated Airports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowden MR (2008) Genesis of end-to-end chromosome fusions. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr (2017) Rikers Guards Accused of Turning a Blind Eye to, or Even Enabling, Sex Assaults. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Sciences Europe
AbbreviationEnviron. Sci. Eur.
ISSN (print)2190-4707
ISSN (online)2190-4715

Other styles