How to format your references using the The Central African Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Central African Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oh S. Physics. The complete quantum Hall trio. Science. 2013 Apr 12;340(6129):153–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Artal-Sanz M, Tavernarakis N. Prohibitin couples diapause signalling to mitochondrial metabolism during ageing in C. elegans. Nature. 2009 Oct 8;461(7265):793–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maskus KE, Mobarak AM, Stuen ET. Economics. Doctoral students and U.S. immigration policy. Science. 2013 Nov 1;342(6158):562–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Luo Z, Zhang Q, Oderaotoshi Y, Curran DP. Fluorous mixture synthesis: a fluorous-tagging strategy for the synthesis and separation of mixtures of organic compounds. Science. 2001 Mar 2;291(5509):1766–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zelterman D. Discrete Distributions: Applications in the Health Sciences. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005. (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics).
An edited book
Campbell T, Miller S, editors. Human Rights and the Moral Responsibilities of Corporate and Public Sector Organisations. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005. VI, 254 p. (Issues in Business Ethics; vol. 20).
A chapter in an edited book
Álvarez P, Hernández S, Fabra J, Ezpeleta J. Cost Estimation for the Provisioning of Computing Resources to Execute Bag-of-Tasks Applications in the Amazon Cloud. In: Altmann J, Silaghi GC, Rana OF, editors. Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services: 12th International Conference, GECON 2015, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, September 15-17, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 65–77. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Central African Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Does Fracking Cause Cancer And Infertility? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund: DOT Has Opportunities to Improve Tracking and Reporting of Highway Spending. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Oct. Report No.: GAO-15-33.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jackson MA. An action research study of collaborative relationhips between psychotherapists and medical doctors [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets Lose Game but Not Any Ground. New York Times. 2016 Sep 15;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Central African Journal of Medicine
AbbreviationCent. Afr. J. Med.
ISSN (print)0008-9176
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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