How to format your references using the The Central African Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Central African Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffmann JA. The immune response of Drosophila. Nature. 2003 Nov 6;426(6962):33–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang M, Liu W-M. The d-p band-inversion topological insulator in bismuth-based skutterudites. Sci Rep. 2014 May 30;4:5131.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sahu G, Sukumaran S, Bera AK. Pannexins form gap junctions with electrophysiological and pharmacological properties distinct from connexins. Sci Rep. 2014 May 14;4:4955.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang Q, He D, Peng F, Lei L, Liu P, Yin S, et al. Unusual compression behavior of nanocrystalline CeO₂. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 24;4:4441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Patterson SJ, Radtke JM. Strategic Communications for Nonprofit Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Curry GL. Manufacturing Systems Modeling and Analysis. Feldman RM, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. XVI, 328 p. 90 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Mondal PP, Diaspro A. Quantum Description of Radiation Field and Optical Microscopy. In: Diaspro A, editor. Fundamentals of Fluorescence Microscopy: Exploring Life with Light. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 71–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Central African Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Dark Matter Map From Hubble’s Frontier Fields [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Estimated Total U.S. Funding Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jun. Report No.: NSIAD-95-163.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee KS. Towards an improved baton technique: The application and modification of conducting gestures drawn from the methods of Rudolf, Green and Saitö for enhanced performance of orchestral interpretations [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Apuzzo M, Goldman A, Schmidt MS, Rosenberg M. Mueller Inquiry Unveils Charges and a Russia Link. New York Times. 2017 Oct 30;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Central African Journal of Medicine
AbbreviationCent. Afr. J. Med.
ISSN (print)0008-9176
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles