How to format your references using the The Central African Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Central African Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V. With the United States on high alert over the possibility of bioterror attacks, epidemiologists are in huge demand. Nature. 2003 Jun 12;423(6941):784–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
West SA, Gardner A. Altruism, spite, and greenbeards. Science. 2010 Mar 12;327(5971):1341–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gladyshev EA, Meselson M, Arkhipova IR. Massive horizontal gene transfer in bdelloid rotifers. Science. 2008 May 30;320(5880):1210–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jackson RB, Jobbágy EG, Avissar R, Roy SB, Barrett DJ, Cook CW, et al. Trading water for carbon with biological carbon sequestration. Science. 2005 Dec 23;310(5756):1944–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Molloy M, Larner W. Fashioning Globalisation. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Yadav SS, Redden R, editors. Climate Change and Management of Cool Season Grain Legume Crops. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. XIX, 460 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Dassisti M, Chimienti M, Shuaib M, Badurdeen F, Jawahir IS. Sustainable Manufacturing: A Framework for Ontology Development. In: Seliger G, editor. Sustainable Manufacturing: Shaping Global Value Creation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 33–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Central African Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. More Than Half Of Sea Turtles Have Eaten Plastic.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aircraft Noise At Memphis International Airport. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Dec. Report No.: RCED-97-37R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grugan PK. The mindfulness practice of clinicians: A systematic review [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chang S. School Scandals: A Scorecard. New York Times. 2006 Feb 5;14LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Central African Journal of Medicine
AbbreviationCent. Afr. J. Med.
ISSN (print)0008-9176
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles