How to format your references using the Journal of Interventional Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Interventional Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solomon S. The hole truth. Nature. 2004;427(6972):289-291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Headlam D, Brown M. Comment on “The geometry of musical chords.” Science. 2007;315(5810):330; author reply 330.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldreich P, Lithwick Y, Sari R. Formation of Kuiper-belt binaries by dynamical friction and three-body encounters. Nature. 2002;420(6916):643-646.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hafner M, Schmitz A, Grüne I, et al. Inhibition of cytohesins by SecinH3 leads to hepatic insulin resistance. Nature. 2006;444(7121):941-944.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tschirhart M, Bielefeld W. Managing Nonprofit Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Golden RE. Best Evidence Structural Interventions for HIV Prevention. (Collins CB, Cunningham SD, Newman EN, Card JJ, eds.). Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Rich SJ. Interdisciplinary Learning: A Stimulant for Reflective Practice. In: Chhem RK, Hibbert KM, Deven TV, eds. Radiology Education: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Springer; 2009:51-61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Interventional Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Here’s What To Eat To Recover From An Injury. IFLScience. Published January 19, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Medicare: Callers Can Access 1-800-MEDICARE Services, but Responsibility within CMS for Limited English Proficiency Plan Unclear. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Browning A. An electronic on-board recorder for intermodal drayage operations. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schulman M. Julie Klausner Meets a Cult-Movie Legend. New York Times. July 28, 2017:ST6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Interventional Medicine
ISSN (print)2096-3602

Other styles