How to format your references using the Journal of Interventional Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Interventional Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quaglioni S. Nuclear physics: Close encounters of the alpha kind. Nature. 2015;528(7580):42-43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Skinner G, Gorenstein P. Astronomy (communication arising): black holes, fleas and microlithography. Nature. 2003;426(6964):245-246.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee S, Bluemle MJ, Bates FS. Discovery of a Frank-Kasper sigma phase in sphere-forming block copolymer melts. Science. 2010;330(6002):349-353.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu F, Rugheimer P, Mateeva E, Savage DE, Lagally MG. Nanomechanics: response of a strained semiconductor structure. Nature. 2002;416(6880):498.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous A. Fracture Mechanics 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Thanos C, Borri F, Candela L, eds. Digital Libraries: Research and Development: First International DELOS Conference, Pisa, Italy, February 13-14, 2007, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 4877. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Green TM, Fisher B. The Personal Equation of Complex Individual Cognition during Visual Interface Interaction. In: Ebert A, Dix A, Gershon ND, Pohl M, eds. Human Aspects of Visualization: Second IFIP WG 13.7 Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Visualization, HCIV (INTERACT) 2009, Uppsala, Sweden, August 24, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2011:38-57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Interventional Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Virtual Reality Could Transform Pornography – But There Are Dangers. IFLScience. Published May 22, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Activities Underway to Improve Teacher Training, but Reporting on These Activities Could Be Enhanced. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris RH. Comparing the Effects of Traditional Face-to-face, Technology-Based, and Blended Instructional Strategies in a Post-Secondary Spanish Language Learning Environment. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times. June 19, 2015:C27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Interventional Medicine
ISSN (print)2096-3602

Other styles