How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Garwin L (2005) Schrödinger’s mousetrap. Part 4. Nature 433:579
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Johnson PA, Jia X (2005) Nonlinear dynamics, granular media and dynamic earthquake triggering. Nature 437:871–874
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Nicastro F, Mathur S, Elvis M (2008) Missing baryons and the warm-hot intergalactic medium. Science 319:55–57
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Huang PY, Ruiz-Vargas CS, van der Zande AM, et al (2011) Grains and grain boundaries in single-layer graphene atomic patchwork quilts. Nature 469:389–392

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Ravindran K (2014) The Mathematics of Financial Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Kubacki K (2015) Ideas in Marketing: Finding the New and Polishing the Old: Proceedings of the 2013 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Barba R (2007) New estimates of tooth-mark and percussion-mark frequencies at the FLK Zinjanthropus level: the carn. In: Egido RB, Egeland CP (eds) Deconstructing Olduvai: A Taphonomic Study of the Bed I Sites. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 39–74

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology.

Blog post
1.
Hale T (2017) Student Designs A Bra That Can Help Detect Breast Cancer. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2015) Information Technology: Implementation of Reform Legislation Needed to Improve Acquisitions and Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bagley CR (2010) Pint-sized spectacles: American youth beauty queens and the power(ful) dynamic of the institutionalized pageant. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly D (1993) IN SHORT: NONFICTION. New York Times 732

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Traumatol.
ISSN (print)1590-9921
ISSN (online)1590-9999
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

Other styles