How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Risch NJ (2000) Searching for genetic determinants in the new millennium. Nature 405:847–856
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Tinel A, Tschopp J (2004) The PIDDosome, a protein complex implicated in activation of caspase-2 in response to genotoxic stress. Science 304:843–846
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Wheeler Q, Assis L, Rieppel O (2013) Phylogenetics: Heed the father of cladistics. Nature 496:295–296
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Petersen JM, Zielinski FU, Pape T, et al (2011) Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses. Nature 476:176–180

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Mead DE (2013) Becoming a Marriage and Family Therapist. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
1.
Crew M, Brennan TJ (2016) The Future of the Postal Sector in a Digital World. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Tanrikulu E (2013) What Needs to Be Done for Successful E Assessment Implementations? In: Passey D, Breiter A, Visscher A (eds) Next Generation of Information Technology in Educational Management: 10th IFIP WG 3.7 Conference, ITEM 2012, Bremen, Germany, August 5-8, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 55–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A (2016) Proxima Centauri Has A Starspot Cycle Just Like Our Sun. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1970) Disposable Glassware for Laboratory Work. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Gravano A (2009) Turn-taking and affirmative cue words in task-oriented dialogue. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Yagoda B (2016) Bohemian Grove. New York Times BR14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Traumatol.
ISSN (print)1590-9921
ISSN (online)1590-9999
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

Other styles