How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (J Orthopaed Traumatol). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dennis C (2002) Stem-cell reverse angers Australian biologists. Nature 416:4
A journal article with 2 authors
Romanov-Michailidis F, Rovis T (2015) Organic chemistry: Natural polarity inverted. Nature 523:417–418
A journal article with 3 authors
Karnath H-O, Borchers S, Himmelbach M (2010) Comment on “Movement intention after parietal cortex stimulation in humans.” Science 327:1200; author reply 1200
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Derégnaucourt S, Mitra PP, Fehér O, et al (2005) How sleep affects the developmental learning of bird song. Nature 433:710–716

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson DW, Woodward JL (2010) Release. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Yin H (2016) Spatio-Temporal Recommendation in Social Media. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Vythilingam I, Wan-Sulaiman WY, Jeffery J (2013) Vectors of Malaria and Filariasis in Southeast Asia: A Changing Scenario. In: Lim YAL, Vythilingam I (eds) Parasites and their vectors: A special focus on Southeast Asia. Springer, Vienna, pp 57–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Nuclear Fusion Reactions See Net Gain in Energy. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Information Technology Management: Small Business Administration Needs Policies and Procedures to Control Key IT Processes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berbery ML (2010) Predictors of White adoptive parents’ cultural and racial socialization behaviors with their Asian adopted children. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly J (1979) When the Mill Pulled the Rub Out From Under Yonkers. New York Times Westchester WeeklyWC15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Traumatol.
ISSN (print)1590-9921
ISSN (online)1590-9999
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles