How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smil V (2001) Genius loci. Nature 409:21
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Soukoulis CM, Wegener M (2010) Materials science. Optical metamaterials--more bulky and less lossy. Science 330:1633–1634
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Frey S, Richter RP, Görlich D (2006) FG-rich repeats of nuclear pore proteins form a three-dimensional meshwork with hydrogel-like properties. Science 314:815–817
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Uchida L, Espada-Murao LA, Takamatsu Y, et al (2014) The dengue virus conceals double-stranded RNA in the intracellular membrane to escape from an interferon response. Sci Rep 4:7395

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Holloway M, Nwaoha C (2012) Dictionary of Industrial Terms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Talaba D, Amditis A (2008) Product Engineering: Tools and Methods Based on Virtual Reality. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Sandberg R, Rollins M (2013) A Brief Introduction to Android Development. In: Rollins M (ed) The Business of Android Apps Development: Making and Marketing Apps that Succeed on Google Play, Amazon App Store and More. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 39–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology.

Blog post
1.
Taub B (2016) Researchers Reverse Aging In Mice By Triggering Embryonic Genes. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/researchers-reverse-aging-mice-triggering-embryonic-genes/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1997) Measuring Performance: Strengths and Limitations of Research Indicators. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Sharp K (2016) The Epistolary Form: A Familiar Fiction. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Nagourney A, Lovett I, Rojas R (2015) Community Struck by Massacre Seemed on Verge of Turnaround. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Traumatol.
ISSN (print)1590-9921
ISSN (online)1590-9999
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

Other styles