How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aldhous P (2000) Protests force primate farm to close. Nature 404:215
A journal article with 2 authors
Yack JE, Fullard JH (2000) Ultrasonic hearing in nocturnal butterflies. Nature 403:265–266
A journal article with 3 authors
Hovenden MJ, Newton PCD, Wills KE (2014) Seasonal not annual rainfall determines grassland biomass response to carbon dioxide. Nature 511:583–586
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sur B, Rogge RB, Hammond RP, et al (2001) Atomic structure holography using thermal neutrons. Nature 414:525–527

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aichinger M, Binder A (2013) A Workout in Computational Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Matamala A, Orero P (2016) Researching Audio Description: New Approaches. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Stival C, Puga Molina L del C, Paudel B, et al (2016) Sperm Capacitation and Acrosome Reaction in Mammalian Sperm. In: Buffone MG (ed) Sperm Acrosome Biogenesis and Function During Fertilization. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 93–106

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Setting Priorities For Environmental Research Is Daunting When The Questions Are So Huge. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Examination of Disbursing Transactions, Naval Supply Corps School, Athens, Georgia. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
HaMai T (2014) The “other” women: What about the experiences of women faculty of color in community colleges? Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hennessey S (2017) Did Trump Violate His Oath of Office? New York Times A25

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Traumatol.
ISSN (print)1590-9921
ISSN (online)1590-9999
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles