How to format your references using the The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry (CIP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson A. Ancient civilization: Cracking the Indus script. Nature 2015;526(7574):499–501.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bjørnstad ON, Grenfell BT. Noisy clockwork: time series analysis of population fluctuations in animals. Science 2001;293(5530):638–643.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomas DSG, Knight M, Wiggs GFS. Remobilization of southern African desert dune systems by twenty-first century global warming. Nature 2005;435(7046):1218–1221.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Luo ML, Zhou Z, Magni K, et al. Pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA export linked by direct interactions between UAP56 and Aly. Nature 2001;413(6856):644–647.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Landragin F. Man-Machine Dialogue. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Kowalewski MM, Garber PA, Cortés-Ortiz L, et al. (eds). Howler Monkeys: Adaptive Radiation, Systematics, and Morphology. New York, NY: Springer; 2015. XXI, 425 p. 63 illus., 16 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Sz.-Nagy B, Bercovici H, Foias C, et al. Extended Functional Calculus. In: Foias C, Bercovici H, Kérchy L, editors. Harmonic Analysis of Operators on Hilbert Space. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. p159–187.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.

Blog post
Hale T. This “Temporary Tattoo” Tells You If You Are Too Drunk. IFLScience (2016, accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GAO Electronic Document Request Service. 142758Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; January 1, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rardin EA. Corporate Psychopaths and Their Proclivity for Infiltrating Organizations. Doctoral DissertationSouthern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Cespedes Said to Accept Highest Salary in Mets History. New York Times, November 29, 2016, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
AbbreviationCan. J. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0706-7437
ISSN (online)1497-0015
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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