How to format your references using the The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry (CIP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D. Marie Curie doesn’t live here, Japanese women say. Nature 2002;419(6909):768.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prives C, Lowe SW. Cancer: Mutant p53 and chromatin regulation. Nature 2015;525(7568):199–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen L-Y, Redon S, Lingner J. The human CST complex is a terminator of telomerase activity. Nature 2012;488(7412):540–544.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chao J-R, Parganas E, Boyd K, et al. Hax1-mediated processing of HtrA2 by Parl allows survival of lymphocytes and neurons. Nature 2008;452(7183):98–102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sluga H. Wittgenstein. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Shah K, Lakshmi Gorty VR, Phirke A (eds). Technology Systems and Management: First International Conference, ICTSM 2011, Mumbai, India, February 25-27, 2011. Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XVIII, 334 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Palmerino CR. The Composition of Space, Time and Matter According to Isaac Newton and John Keill. In: Garber D, editor. The Mechanization of Natural Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p117–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.

Blog post
Potvin S. How Sound Can Be Used To Levitate Objects. IFLScience (2017, accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Consolidation Loans: Potential Effects of Making Fiscal Year 2006 Consolidation Loans Exclusively through the Direct Loan Program. GAO-06-195Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; December 5, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilensky SE. 340B prime vendor program: Health center decision making and barriers to participation. Doctoral DissertationGeorge Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R. During Rikers Upheaval, the ‘Prettiest Village in Maine’ Beckoned. New York Times, April 30, 2017, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
AbbreviationCan. J. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0706-7437
ISSN (online)1497-0015
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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