How to format your references using the The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry (CIP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Branscomb LM. Science and industry. Research alone is not enough. Science 2008;321(5891):915–916.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schrag DP, Hoffman PF. Life, geology and snowball Earth. Nature 2001;409(6818):306.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheludev I, Smith R, Aste T. When can social media lead financial markets? Sci Rep 2014;44213.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mikkola I, Heavey B, Horcher M, et al. Reversion of B cell commitment upon loss of Pax5 expression. Science 2002;297(5578):110–113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phelan J. Reading the American Novel 1920-2010. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Wong BJ-F, Ilgner J (eds). Biomedical Optics in Otorhinolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. New York, NY: Springer; 2016. XVIII, 653 p. 267 illus., 213 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu Z, Chen X. Model-Driven Design of Object and Component Systems. In: Liu Z, Zhang Z, editors. Engineering Trustworthy Software Systems: First International School, SETSS 2014, Chongqing, China, September 8-13, 2014. Tutorial Lectures. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p152–255.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew E. Disease Evolution: How New Illnesses Emerge When We Change How We Live. IFLScience (2016, accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. GAO-03-360RWashington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; January 23, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee D. Subjective strain, anger, and delinquency: Evidence from South Korea. Doctoral DissertationUniversity of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. A Potluck of Anxiety as a Family Gathers in an Election Season. New York Times, September 18, 2016, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
AbbreviationCan. J. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0706-7437
ISSN (online)1497-0015
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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