How to format your references using the Forest Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCook A. 2011. Education: Rethinking PhDs. Nature. 472(7343):280–282.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller LH, Greenwood B. 2002. Malaria--a shadow over Africa. Science. 298(5591):121–122.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kobayashi K, Yoshimura J, Hasegawa E. 2013. Coexistence of sexual individuals and genetically isolated asexual counterparts in a thrips. Sci Rep. 3:3286.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Ho M-C, Ménétret J-F, Tsuruta H, Allen KN. 2009. The origin of the electrostatic perturbation in acetoacetate decarboxylase. Nature. 459(7245):393–397.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kang CW, Kvam PH. 2011. Basic Statistical Tools for Improving Quality. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kerkhoffs GMMJ, Servien E, editors. 2014. Acute Muscle Injuries. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wisløff U, Haram PM, Kemi OJ. 2007. Genetic Vs. Acquired Fitness: Cardiomyocyte Adaptations. In: Stocchi V, Feo PD, Hood DA, editors. Role of Physical Exercise in Preventing Disease and Improving the Quality of Life. Milano: Springer; p. 61–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. How Computers are Learning to Make Human Software Work More Efficiently. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Reports Issued in June 1989. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harvey TN. 2016. Effects of low pass filtered input on adult non-lexical intonation in second language acquisition [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. 2017. Silvery, Then Raucous: A Leap Across Time. New York Times.:C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCook 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Miller and Greenwood 2002; McCook 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miller and Greenwood 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Ho et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Science and Technology
AbbreviationForest Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2158-0103
ISSN (online)2158-0715
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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