How to format your references using the Forest Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schorghofer N. 2007. Dynamics of ice ages on Mars. Nature. 449(7159):192–194.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang H-I, Zeng F-G. 2013. Reduced acoustic and electric integration in concurrent-vowel recognition. Sci Rep. 3:1419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lemieux C, Otis C, Turmel M. 2000. Ancestral chloroplast genome in Mesostigma viride reveals an early branch of green plant evolution. Nature. 403(6770):649–652.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Tzedakis PC, Hughen KA, Cacho I, Harvati K. 2007. Placing late Neanderthals in a climatic context. Nature. 449(7159):206–208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Curioso A, Bradford R, Galbraith P. 2010. Expert PHP and MySQL®. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Kalia S, Fu S-Y, editors. 2013. Polymers at Cryogenic Temperatures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Azzopardi LM, Grech L, Rogers M. 2016. Pharmaceutical Care Issues of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients. In: Grech L, Lau A, editors. Pharmaceutical Care Issues of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: From Hospital to Community. Singapore: Springer; p. 53–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Science and Technology.

Blog post
Fang J. 2015. 4,200-Year-Old Egyptian Skeleton Shows Signs of Breast Cancer. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Federal Communications Commission: Direct Broadcast Satellite Public Interest Obligations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Decena M. 2010. What variables affect Peritoneal Dialysis growth? [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Andrews M. 2017. Venus Williams Investigated in Fatal Crash. New York Times.:B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schorghofer 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Schorghofer 2007; Yang & Zeng 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yang & Zeng 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Tzedakis et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Science and Technology
AbbreviationForest Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2158-0103
ISSN (online)2158-0715
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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