How to format your references using the Forest Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crabtree RH. 2010. Chemistry. Creating ligands with multiple personalities. Science. 330(6003):455–456.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen J, Stewart I. 2001. Where are the dolphins? Nature. 409(6823):1119–1122.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kovács ÁM, Téglás E, Endress AD. 2010. The social sense: susceptibility to others’ beliefs in human infants and adults. Science. 330(6012):1830–1834.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Chavez FP, Ryan J, Lluch-Cota SE, Niquen C M. 2003. From anchovies to sardines and back: multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science. 299(5604):217–221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gywat O, Krenner HJ, Berezovsky J. 2009. Spins in Optically Active Quantum Dots. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Schmidt U, Traub S, editors. 2005. Advances in Public Economics: Utility, Choice and Welfare: A Festschrift for Christian Seidl. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Duncan CA, Phoha VV. 2012. On the Complexity of Aggregating Information for Authentication and Profiling. In: Garcia-Alfaro J, Navarro-Arribas G, Cuppens-Boulahia N, Capitani di Vimercati S de, editors. Data Privacy Management and Autonomous Spontaneus Security: 6th International Workshop, DPM 2011, and 4th International Workshop, SETOP 2011, Leuven, Belgium, September 15-16, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 58–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Science and Technology.

Blog post
Hale T. 2017. Icelandic Police Think Drivers Are Drunk, But They’re Just Distracted By Northern Lights. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Highlights of a Forum: Data and Analytics Innovation: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crosby AE. 2012. A phenomenological heuristic study of psychosocial factors that contribute to African American females’ HIV seroconversion [Doctoral dissertation]. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. 2007. As Sarkozy and Putin Meet, Iran Quickly Comes Between Them. New York Times.:A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crabtree 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen and Stewart 2001; Crabtree 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cohen and Stewart 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chavez et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Science and Technology
AbbreviationForest Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2158-0103
ISSN (online)2158-0715
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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