How to format your references using the Forest Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spratt BG. 2003. Microbiology. Stomachs out of Africa. Science. 299:1528–1529.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li C, Thompson CB. 2002. Cancer. DNA damage, deamidation, and death. Science. 298:1346–1347.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tiberti MM, Basili R, Vannoli P. 2014. Ups and downs in western Crete (Hellenic subduction zone). Sci Rep. 4:5677.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Salzberg SL, White O, Peterson J, Eisen JA. 2001. Microbial genes in the human genome: lateral transfer or gene loss? Science. 292:1903–1906.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Masujima M. 2005. Applied Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Physics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Sung K, Pederson R, editors. 2012. Critical ELT Practices in Asia. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Adams JC, Brainerd WS, Hendrickson RA, Maine RE, Martin JT, Smith BT. 2009. Declarations. In: Brainerd WS, Hendrickson RA, Maine RE, Martin JT, Smith BT, editors. The Fortran 2003 Handbook: The Complete Syntax, Features and Procedures. London: Springer; p. 115–169.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Should You Rely On First Instincts When Answering A Multiple Choice Exam? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Brockton Substance Abuse. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valenzuela J. 2014. Medicare advantage’s population make-up and its impact on the future of Medicare financing [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. 2007. Bill Penalizes Adults in Under-Age Drinking. New York Times.:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spratt 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Li & Thompson 2002; Spratt 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li & Thompson 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Salzberg et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Science and Technology
AbbreviationForest Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2158-0103
ISSN (online)2158-0715
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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