How to format your references using the The British Journal of Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The British Journal of Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rahmstorf S. A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science 2007;315:368–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stephenson NL, Das AJ. Comment on ‘Changes in climatic water balance drive downhill shifts in plant species’ optimum elevations’. Science 2011;334:177; author reply 177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knauth LP, Burt DM, Wohletz KH. Impact origin of sediments at the Opportunity landing site on Mars. Nature 2005;438:1123–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Denofrio LA, Russell B, Lopatto D, Lu Y. Mentoring. Linking student interests to science curricula. Science 2007;318:1872–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaul S, Ali F, Janakiram S, Wattenström B. Business Models for Sustainable Telecoms Growth in Developing Economies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Ball JA, Bolotnikov V, Rodman L, Spitkovsky IM, Helton JW, editors. Topics in Operator Theory: Volume 2: Systems and Mathematical Physics Proceedings of the XIXth International Workshop on Operator Theory and its Applications, College of William and Mary, 2008. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Pule-Meulenberg F. Root-Nodule Bacteria of Legumes Growing in Semi-Arid African Soils and Other Areas of the World. In: Maheshwari DK, editor. Bacterial Diversity in Sustainable Agriculture. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 101–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The British Journal of Cardiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Do Spikes Form On Ice Cubes? IFLScience. 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Food and Drug Administration: Effect of User Fees on Drug Approval Times, Withdrawals, and Other Agency Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Neil S. A turn from the worst: Leadership influences on the successful turnaround of a high-poverty school. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood C. An Unsettling Glimpse Into the Existential Abyss. New York Times. 2016;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe British Journal of Cardiology
AbbreviationBr. J. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)0969-6113
ISSN (online)1753-4313
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles