How to format your references using the Sexually Transmitted Infections citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sexually Transmitted Infections. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Madden JD. Mobile robots: motor challenges and materials solutions. Science 2007;318:1094–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fine M, Tchernov D. Scleractinian coral species survive and recover from decalcification. Science 2007;315:1811.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang Y, Magan JJ, Blau WJ. A general strategy for hybrid thin film fabrication and transfer onto arbitrary substrates. Sci Rep 2014;4:4822.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lelieveld J, Lechtenböhmer S, Assonov SS, et al. Greenhouse gases: low methane leakage from gas pipelines. Nature 2005;434:841–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duffy DJ. Finite Difference Methods in Financial Engineering. Oxford, UK: : John Wiley & Sons Ltd 2006.
An edited book
Livingstone DW, Guile D, editors. The Knowledge Economy and Lifelong Learning: A Critical Reader. Rotterdam: : SensePublishers 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Jetley R, Sudarsan S, R. S, et al. Medical Software – Issues and Best Practices. In: Hota C, Srimani PK, eds. Distributed Computing and Internet Technology: 9th International Conference, ICDCIT 2013, Bhubaneswar, India, February 5-8, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2013. 69–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sexually Transmitted Infections.

Blog post
Taub B. Nearly All Lion Deaths Are Caused By Humans In Some Parts Of Africa. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Farmers Home Administration: Half-Billion Dollar ADP Modernization Lacks Adequate Planning and Oversight. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purdy DW. Identifying Shallow Foundation Failure Modes and Mechanisms Using Surveillance of a Transparent Granular Soil Surrogate. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. A Messy Look at the Family Mystery. New York Times. 2013;:AR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSexually Transmitted Infections
AbbreviationSex. Transm. Infect.
ISSN (print)1368-4973
ISSN (online)1472-3263
Infectious Diseases

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