How to format your references using the BMC Pediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Pediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Faedi F. Exoplanets: A glimpse of Earth’s fate. Nature. 2015;526:515–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Belkaid Y, Grainger J. Immunology. Mucus coat, a dress code for tolerance. Science. 2013;342:432–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Miyazawa A, Fujiyoshi Y, Unwin N. Structure and gating mechanism of the acetylcholine receptor pore. Nature. 2003;423:949–55.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bass RB, Strop P, Barclay M, Rees DC. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli MscS, a voltage-modulated and mechanosensitive channel. Science. 2002;298:1582–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Karlson B, Bria A, Lind J, Lönnqvist P, Norlin C. Wireless Foresight. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Parthasarathy N, editor. Biodiversity of Lianas. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Herrera F, Lozano M. Fuzzy Evolutionary Algorithms and Genetic Fuzzy Systems: A Positive Collaboration between Evolutionary Algorithms and Fuzzy Systems. In: Mumford CL, Jain LC, editors. Computational Intelligence: Collaboration, Fusion and Emergence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 83–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Pediatrics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Spaceship-Style Floating Lab Could Be Exploring Our Oceans In 2016. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/spaceship-style-floating-lab-could-be-exploring-our-oceans-2016/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Electronic Health Information: HHS Needs to Strengthen Security and Privacy Guidance and Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Willhite DG. Purification, Identification, and Partial Characterization of Proteins Associated with the Adaptive Immune Response to Soluble Protein Antigen in the American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati; 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow L. Jones Beach Hit Hard By Budget Cuts to Parks. New York Times. 2009;:LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Pediatrics
AbbreviationBMC Pediatr.
ISSN (online)1471-2431
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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