How to format your references using the BMC Pediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Pediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ryan MJ. Replication in field biology: the case of the frog-eating bat. Science. 2011;334:1229–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fan QR, Hendrickson WA. Structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone in complex with its receptor. Nature. 2005;433:269–77.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Loughlin PC, Willows RD, Chen M. In vitro conversion of vinyl to formyl groups in naturally occurring chlorophylls. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6069.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Barreiro A, Rurali R, Hernández ER, Moser J, Pichler T, Forró L, et al. Subnanometer motion of cargoes driven by thermal gradients along carbon nanotubes. Science. 2008;320:775–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1998.
An edited book
1. Resch MM, Bez W, Focht E, Kobayashi H, Qi J, Roller S, editors. Sustained Simulation Performance 2015: Proceedings of the joint Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance, University of Stuttgart (HLRS) and Tohoku University, 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gales MJF. Model-Based Approaches to Handling Uncertainty. In: Kolossa D, Häb-Umbach R, editors. Robust Speech Recognition of Uncertain or Missing Data: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 101–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Pediatrics.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Seasons On Titan Have A Dramatic Effect On Its Atmosphere. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/space/seasons-on-titan-have-a-dramatic-effect-on-its-atmosphere/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. GAO and Federal Government ADP Procurement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hertzman R. Yemen’s migrant networks as critical factor in political opposition to the Imamate. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Cooper M. Michael Tilson Thomas To Step Down in 2020. New York Times. 2017;:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Pediatrics
AbbreviationBMC Pediatr.
ISSN (online)1471-2431
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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