How to format your references using the The Biological Bulletin citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Biological Bulletin. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2002. Boston: a magnetic hub. Nature 417: 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rignot, E. and P. Kanagaratnam. 2006. Changes in the velocity structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 311: 986–990.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vohs, K. D., N. L. Mead and M. R. Goode. 2006. The psychological consequences of money. Science 314: 1154–1156.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Clarkson, J. R., E. Baquero, V. A. Shubert, E. M. Myshakin, K. D. Jordan and T. S. Zwier. 2005. Laser-initiated shuttling of a water molecule between H-bonding sites. Science 307: 1443–1446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
da Silva, L. S., R. Simões and H. Gervásio. 2012. Design of Steel Structures. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany.
An edited book
Tiwari, P. 2016. Development Paradigms for Urban Housing in BRICS Countries (J. Rao and J. Day, eds). Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Caldwell, C. M. and K. B. Kaplan. 2009. The Role of APC in Mitosis and in Chromosome Instability. In: APC Proteins (I. S. Näthke and B. M. McCartney, eds), pp. 51–64. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Biological Bulletin.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016. A New Twist To Whodunnit In Science’s Famous Piltdown Man Hoax. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. State Department: Provision of Residential Furniture Inconsistent With Best Practices. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jordan, A. D. 2008. Measuring the efficacy of a Ninth Grade Academy on students with disabilities. Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. 2017. Leonard Cohen Book Scheduled for 2018.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2002; Rignot and Kanagaratnam, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rignot and Kanagaratnam, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Clarkson et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Biological Bulletin
AbbreviationBiol. Bull.
ISSN (print)0006-3185
ISSN (online)1939-8697
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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