How to format your references using the The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyer-Lindenberg, A. 2010, Nature, 468, 194
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Connell, L. A., & Hofmann, H. A. 2012, Science, 336, 1154
A journal article with 3 authors
Cumings, J., Collins, P. G., & Zettl, A. 2000, Nature, 406, 586
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Nicastro, F., Kaastra, J., Krongold, Y., et al. 2018, Nature, 558, 406

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeRosa, D. F. 2013, Foreign Exchange Operations (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Wang, Y., & Zhang, X. 2012, Internet of Things: International Workshop, IOT 2012, Changsha, China, August 17-19, 2012. Proceedings, Vol. 312 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Fischer, M. 2009, in Breeding Plantation Tree Crops: Temperate Species, ed. P. M. Priyadarshan, & S. M. Jain (New York, NY: Springer), 135

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2016, IFLScience (IFLScience),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988, Space Exploration: NASA’s Deep Space Missions Are Experiencing Long Delays (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene, J. 2017, Recognizing the ‘Muchness’ in Art Education: a Historical Analysis of Developments in Education and Art Education Since the 1950s and the Finding Your Muchness Photoshop Curriculum (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. 2016, New York Times, C13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meyer-Lindenberg 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Meyer-Lindenberg 2010; O’Connell & Hofmann 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Connell & Hofmann 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Nicastro et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
AbbreviationAstrophys. J. Suppl. Ser.
ISSN (print)0067-0049
ISSN (online)1538-4365
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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