How to format your references using the Computers, Environment and Urban Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T. (2003). NASA: trawling through the wreckage. Nature, 426(6968), 754–755.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tang, Y., & Cohen, A. E. (2011). Enhanced enantioselectivity in excitation of chiral molecules by superchiral light. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6027), 333–336.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haitin, Y., Carlson, A. E., & Zagotta, W. N. (2013). The structural mechanism of KCNH-channel regulation by the eag domain. Nature, 501(7467), 444–448.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Erlandson, K. J., Miller, S. B. M., Nam, Y., Osborne, A. R., Zimmer, J., & Rapoport, T. A. (2008). A role for the two-helix finger of the SecA ATPase in protein translocation. Nature, 455(7215), 984–987.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brendel, R. (2005). Thin-Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Martínez-Piva, J. M. (Ed.). (2010). Knowledge Generation and Protection: Intellectual Property, Innovation and Economic Development. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Maybodi, M., Hertle, R. W., & Bachynski, B. N. (2006). Ocular Motility Disorders. In K. W. Wright, P. H. Spiegel, & L. S. Thompson (Eds.), Handbook of Pediatric Neuro-Ophthalmology (pp. 107–203). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers, Environment and Urban Systems.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, June 2). New Estimate Suggests 100 Million Planets In Our Galaxy Capable Of Sustaining Complex Life. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). National Airspace System: Better Cost Data Could Improve FAA’s Management of the Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (No. GAO-03-343). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buzinski, P. (2009). Exploring job satisfaction of long-term virtual employees (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, July 15). Packing In Labels Galore. New York Times, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt, 2003; Tang & Cohen, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tang & Cohen, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Haitin, Carlson, & Zagotta, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Erlandson et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers, Environment and Urban Systems
AbbreviationComput. Environ. Urban Syst.
ISSN (print)0198-9715
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Ecological Modelling
Geography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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