How to format your references using the Computers, Environment and Urban Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elser, J. J. (2011). Geochemistry. A world awash with nitrogen. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6062), 1504–1505.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mettetal, J. T., & van Oudenaarden, A. (2007). Microbiology. Necessary noise. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5837), 463–464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cook, D. J., Teves, L., & Tymianski, M. (2012). Treatment of stroke with a PSD-95 inhibitor in the gyrencephalic primate brain. Nature, 483(7388), 213–217.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, A.-H., Scapa, E. F., Cohen, D. E., & Glimcher, L. H. (2008). Regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by the transcription factor XBP1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5882), 1492–1496.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ugeux, G. (2014). International Finance Regulation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kobyliński, A., Czarnacka-Chrobot, B., & Świerczek, J. (Eds.). (2015). Software Measurement: 25th International Workshop on Software Measurement and 10th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement, IWSM-Mensura 2015, Kraków, Poland, October 5-7, 2015, Proceedings (Vol. 230). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Shavitt, Y., & Zilberman, N. (2013). Internet PoP Level Maps. In E. Biersack, C. Callegari, & M. Matijasevic (Eds.), Data Traffic Monitoring and Analysis: From Measurement, Classification, and Anomaly Detection to Quality of Experience (pp. 82–103). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers, Environment and Urban Systems.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, October 15). Rare Beaked Whale Washes Up in Australia. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). An Analysis of Concerns in Federal Education Programs: Duplication of Services and Administrative Costs (HRD-80-18). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cuvar, K. M. (2015). Balanced and collaborative outsourcing of IT services: A qualitative Delphi study of enterprise partnerships [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B. (2017, May 5). From the London Whale to Wells Fargo, a Bank Regulator Looks Back. New York Times, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elser, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Elser, 2011; Mettetal & van Oudenaarden, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mettetal & van Oudenaarden, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Cook et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lee et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers, Environment and Urban Systems
AbbreviationComput. Environ. Urban Syst.
ISSN (print)0198-9715
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Ecological Modelling
Geography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

Other styles