How to format your references using the Computers, Environment and Urban Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel, J. S. (2004). Chemistry. Chemical topology and interlocking molecules. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5675), 1256–1258.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taipale, J., & Beachy, P. A. (2001). The Hedgehog and Wnt signalling pathways in cancer. Nature, 411(6835), 349–354.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bingenheimer, J. B., Brennan, R. T., & Earls, F. J. (2005). Firearm violence exposure and serious violent behavior. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5726), 1323–1326.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rakitzis, T. P., Samartzis, P. C., Toomes, R. L., Kitsopoulos, T. N., Brown, A., Balint-Kurti, G. G., Vasyutinskii, O. S., & Beswick, J. A. (2003). Spin-polarized hydrogen atoms from molecular photodissociation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5627), 1936–1938.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman, N. P. (2010). Process Engineering for a Small Planet. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wu, X. (2015). Structure-Preserving Algorithms for Oscillatory Differential Equations II (K. Liu & W. Shi, Eds.; 1st ed. 2015). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Innocentini-Mei, L. H., & Fakhouri, F. M. (2013). Recent Studies on Soy Protein Based Blends, Composites and Nanocomposites. In S. Thomas, P. M. Visakh, & A. P. Mathew (Eds.), Advances in Natural Polymers: Composites and Nanocomposites (pp. 155–168). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers, Environment and Urban Systems.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, July 20). This Harpoon Is Being “Fired” Into People’s Hearts To Save Their Lives. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). [Comments on Effect of P.L. 99-177 on Teacher Loan Cancellation Program] (B-221498.13). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saguilig, L. G. (2017). A Clinical Decision Support System for the Prevention of Genetic-Related Heart Disease [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1994, May 22). PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times, 1412.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Siegel, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Siegel, 2004; Taipale & Beachy, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taipale & Beachy, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Bingenheimer et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rakitzis et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers, Environment and Urban Systems
AbbreviationComput. Environ. Urban Syst.
ISSN (print)0198-9715
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Ecological Modelling
Geography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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