How to format your references using the Computers, Environment and Urban Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corral, G. H. (2011). Stand up against the anti-technology terrorists. Nature, 476(7361), 373.
A journal article with 2 authors
Najemnik, J., & Geisler, W. S. (2005). Optimal eye movement strategies in visual search. Nature, 434(7031), 387–391.
A journal article with 3 authors
Klöckner, H.-R., Baan, W. A., & Garrett, M. A. (2003). Investigation of the obscuring circumnuclear torus in the active galaxy Mrk231. Nature, 421(6925), 821–823.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Brandon, C. M., Woodruff, J. D., Donnelly, J. P., & Sullivan, R. M. (2014). How unique was Hurricane Sandy? Sedimentary reconstructions of extreme flooding from New York Harbor. Scientific Reports, 4, 7366.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Epperlein, P. W. (2013). Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Steele, R. G., Elkin, T. D., & Roberts, M. C. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of Evidence-Based Therapies for Children and Adolescents: Bridging Science and Practice. Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Cremona, J. E., & Aranés, M. T. (2014). Congruence Subgroups, Cusps and Manin Symbols over Number Fields. In G. Böckle & G. Wiese (Eds.), Computations with Modular Forms: Proceedings of a Summer School and Conference, Heidelberg, August/September 2011 (pp. 109–127). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers, Environment and Urban Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 14). Russian Scientists Explore Mysterious Siberian Hole. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). Analysis of Migration Characteristics of Children Served Under the Migrant Education Program (HRD-83-40). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, S. L. (2008). Ninth grade transition: Best practices for a successful transition to high school [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved, J. (2016, August 4). Trading a T Square for Showbiz. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Corral, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Corral, 2011; Najemnik & Geisler, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Najemnik & Geisler, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Klöckner et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Brandon et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers, Environment and Urban Systems
AbbreviationComput. Environ. Urban Syst.
ISSN (print)0198-9715
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Ecological Modelling
Geography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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