How to format your references using the Computers, Environment and Urban Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van den Broek, P. (2010). Using texts in science education: cognitive processes and knowledge representation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5977), 453–456.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmerr, N., & Garnero, E. J. (2007). Upper mantle discontinuity topography from thermal and chemical heterogeneity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5850), 623–626.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bilham, R., Gaur, V. K., & Molnar, P. (2001). Earthquakes. Himalayan seismic hazard. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5534), 1442–1444.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Monné, M., Han, L., Schwend, T., Burendahl, S., & Jovine, L. (2008). Crystal structure of the ZP-N domain of ZP3 reveals the core fold of animal egg coats. Nature, 456(7222), 653–657.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Klerk, A. (2011). Fischer-Tropsch Refining. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Behnke, R. (Ed.). (2008). The Socio-Economic Causes and Consequences of Desertification in Central Asia. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Parody, L., Gómez-López, M. T., & Gasca, R. M. (2014). Data-Oriented Declarative Language for Optimizing Business Processes. In M. José Escalona, G. Aragón, H. Linger, M. Lang, C. Barry, & C. Schneider (Eds.), Information System Development: Improving Enterprise Communication (pp. 59–72). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers, Environment and Urban Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 26). Scientists Discover How Mantis Shrimp Claws Balance Form And Function. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Information Technology: Architecture Needed to Guide NASA’s Financial Management Modernization (GAO-04-43). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koval, B. C. (2016). Undergraduate Students in Paraprofessional Roles and their Use of Online Social Networks [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, February 15). Theater; A New Angle on an Old Line. New York Times, AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van den Broek, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Schmerr & Garnero, 2007; van den Broek, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schmerr & Garnero, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Bilham et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Monné et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers, Environment and Urban Systems
AbbreviationComput. Environ. Urban Syst.
ISSN (print)0198-9715
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Ecological Modelling
Geography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

Other styles