How to format your references using the The Astronomical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Astronomical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clery, D. 2014, Science, 344, 964
A journal article with 2 authors
Olson, P., & Hanahan, D. 2009, Science, 324, 1400
A journal article with 3 authors
Kender, S., Yu, J., & Peck, V. L. 2014, Sci Rep, 4, 4187
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Freedman, J. P., Leach, J. H., Preble, E. A., et al. 2013, Sci Rep, 3, 2963

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malhotra, G. 2010, Chemical Process Simplification (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Ballmann, W., Blohmann, C., Faltings, G., Teichner, P., & Zagier, D. 2016, Arbeitstagung Bonn 2013: In Memory of Friedrich Hirzebruch, Vol. 319 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Fischer, T., & Abrams, J. 2005, in Julie Snow Architects, ed. J. Abrams (New York, NY: Princeton Archit. Press), 17

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Astronomical Journal.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016, IFLScience (IFLScience)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979, Proposed Relocation of the Offices of the Social Security Administrator and Staff (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tetley, J. 2009, An investigation of self-authorship, hope, and meaning in life among second-year college students (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. 2006, New York Times, 14CN6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clery 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Clery 2014; Olson & Hanahan 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olson & Hanahan 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Freedman et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Astronomical Journal
AbbreviationAstron. J.
ISSN (print)0004-6256
ISSN (online)1538-3881
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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