How to format your references using the Biomass and Bioenergy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomass and Bioenergy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Kiehl, Climate change. Lessons from Earth’s past, Science. 331 (2011) 158–159.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. MacMillan, T.G. Benton, Agriculture: Engage farmers in research, Nature. 509 (2014) 25–27.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.J. Tewksbury, R.B. Huey, C.A. Deutsch, Ecology. Putting the heat on tropical animals, Science. 320 (2008) 1296–1297.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.R. Ferrón, M. Charalambous, E. Radford, K. McEwen, H. Wildner, E. Hind, J.M. Morante-Redolat, J. Laborda, F. Guillemot, S.R. Bauer, I. Fariñas, A.C. Ferguson-Smith, Postnatal loss of Dlk1 imprinting in stem cells and niche astrocytes regulates neurogenesis, Nature. 475 (2011) 381–385.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.L. Stein, Kinetics of Enzyme Action, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
M. Südholt, C. Consel, eds., Object-Oriented Technology. ECOOP 2006 Workshop Reader: ECOOP 2006 Workshops, Nantes, France, July 3-7, 2006, Final Reports, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
S.R. Velamuri, M. Sosna, European Entrepreneurship: From Deterministic Government Policy to Market Experimentation, in: C. Scholz, J. Zentes (Eds.), Strategic Management — New Rules for Old Europe, Gabler, Wiesbaden, 2006: pp. 83–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomass and Bioenergy.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Sea Level Rise Could “Save” Reefs From Global Warming, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Agencies Need Better Controls to Achieve Significant Savings on Mobile Devices and Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Grace, A Correlational Study of the Relationship Between TEAS V and Success in Licensed Practical Nursing Students, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, A Harbinger of U.S. Woes, New York Times. (2016) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomass and Bioenergy
AbbreviationBiomass Bioenergy
ISSN (print)0961-9534
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Waste Management and Disposal

Other styles