How to format your references using the International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Koenig: ‘Profile. South Africa’s bone man: 80 and still digging into the past’, Science, 2005, 310, 608–609.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. C. Eddingsaas and K. S. Suslick: ‘Mechanoluminescence: light from sonication of crystal slurries’, Nature, 2006, 444, 163.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Wang, Y. Mei and D. Hicks: ‘Science communication. Comment on “Quantifying long-term scientific impact”’, Science, 2014, 345, 149.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Coqueugniot, J.-J. Hublin, F. Veillon, F. Houët and T. Jacob: ‘Early brain growth in Homo erectus and implications for cognitive ability’, Nature, 2004, 431, 299–302.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. O’Malley: ‘Bonds Without Borders’, 2014, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
K. C. Wieseman and M. H. Weinburgh, Eds.: ‘Women’s Experiences in Leadership in K-16 Science Education Communities: Becoming and Being’, 2009, Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Azar and O. Gilon: in Algorithms - ESA 2015: 23rd Annual European Symposium, Patras, Greece, September 14-16, 2015, Proceedings, eds. N. Bansal and I. Finocchi, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2015, pp. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials.

Blog post
E. Andrew: Common Antimicrobial Soap Ingredient Linked To Liver Disease,, (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ‘Stronger Actions Needed To Recover $730 Million in Defaulted National Direct Student Loans’, 1981, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. L. Walsh: ‘Advancing Electroanalytical Methods for Monitoring Chemical Messenger Release’, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. R. Oestreich: New York Times, 2016, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials
AbbreviationInt. J. Polym. Mater.
ISSN (print)0091-4037
ISSN (online)1563-535X
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Analytical Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics

Other styles