How to format your references using the International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Alvarez: ‘Time for a change’, Nature, 2007, 445, 682.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Schreiber and D. A. Rowley: ‘Cancer. Quo vadis, specificity?’, Science, 2008, 319, 164–165.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Whiteman, C. Hope and P. Wadhams: ‘Vast costs of Arctic change’, Nature, 2013, 499, 401–403.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. J. Lee, Y. Matsuura, S. M. Liu and M. Stewart: ‘Structural basis for nuclear import complex dissociation by RanGTP’, Nature, 2005, 435, 693–696.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Phelan: ‘Reading the American Novel 1920-2010’, 2013, Oxford, UK, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
R. J. Howlett, L. C. Jain and S. H. Lee, Eds.: ‘Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Results of the Second International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB’10)’, vol. 7, 2011, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
M. A. Sheikh and Y. Erlich: in Bioinformatics for High Throughput Sequencing, eds. N. Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, M. Hackenberg and A. M. Aransay, New York, NY, Springer, 2012, pp. 67–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials.

Blog post
E. Andrew: Why Is Life Left-Handed? The Answer Is In The Stars,, (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ‘2020 Census: Prioritized Information Technology Research and Testing Is Needed for Census Design Decisions’, 2014, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y.-T. Hsu: ‘Input and Uptake in High School EFL Students’ Multiple-Draft Writing Process: A Case Study of a Taiwanese High School EFL Classroom’, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley: New York Times, 2016, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials
AbbreviationInt. J. Polym. Mater.
ISSN (print)0091-4037
ISSN (online)1563-535X
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Analytical Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics

Other styles