How to format your references using the The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T. (2000). Safety concerns force NASA to condemn satellite to fiery end. Nature, 404(6777), 423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Testa, G., & Harris, J. (2004). Genetics. Ethical aspects of ES cell-derived gametes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5691), 1719.
A journal article with 3 authors
Asphaug, E., Agnor, C. B., & Williams, Q. (2006). Hit-and-run planetary collisions. Nature, 439(7073), 155–160.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tocheva, E. I., Rosell, F. I., Mauk, A. G., & Murphy, M. E. P. (2004). Side-on copper-nitrosyl coordination by nitrite reductase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5672), 867–870.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meschede, D. (2017). Optics, Light, and Lasers. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Skiadas, C. H. (Ed.). (2010). Advances in Data Analysis: Theory and Applications to Reliability and Inference, Data Mining, Bioinformatics, Lifetime Data, and Neural Networks. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Bal-Woźniak, T. (2015). Creating Sustainable Enterprise Using the Substantive Innovativeness Model. In L. O’Riordan, P. Zmuda, & S. Heinemann (Eds.), New Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility: Locating the Missing Link (pp. 89–108). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, July 7). Nitrous Oxide Alters People’s Brainwaves. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Education and Employment Issue Area: Active Assignments (No. AA-96-13(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Fossen, L. (2015). The communicative use of iconic face drawings to express emotional and evaluative statements in persons with aphasia (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, May 25). When Politics Roils Market, Tuning Out May Pay Off. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt 2000; Testa and Harris 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Testa and Harris 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Tocheva et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
ISSN (print)0119-5646
ISSN (online)2243-7908

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