How to format your references using the The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. (2002). Postdoc positions axed as economic crisis takes its toll. Nature, 420(6915), 452.
A journal article with 2 authors
Festing, M. F., & Fisher, E. M. (2000). Mighty mice. Nature, 404(6780), 815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dial, K. P., Jackson, B. E., & Segre, P. (2008). A fundamental avian wing-stroke provides a new perspective on the evolution of flight. Nature, 451(7181), 985–989.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gaensler, B. M., Haverkorn, M., Staveley-Smith, L., Dickey, J. M., McClure-Griffiths, N. M., Dickel, J. R., & Wolleben, M. (2005). The magnetic field of the Large Magellanic Cloud revealed through Faraday rotation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5715), 1610–1612.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grist, F. (2010). Basic Guide to Orthodontic Dental Nursing. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Demengel, F. (2012). Functional Spaces for the Theory of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations. (G. Demengel, Ed.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boden, F., Wolf, T., Lanari, C., & Torres, A. (2013). IPCT Ground Vibration Measurements on a Small Aircraft. In F. Boden, N. Lawson, H. W. Jentink, & J. Kompenhans (Eds.), Advanced In-Flight Measurement Techniques (pp. 33–55). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, September 6). Why Do We Keep Seeing Crazy Stuff On Mars? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Uses of Minicomputers in the Federal Government: Trends, Benefits, and Problems (No. FGMSD-75-53). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schneider, S. Z. (2009). Mercury sources and cycling processes in the Cape Fear River estuary, North Carolina (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2016, January 2). Revisiting an Effort to Expose the Evils of ‘Mein Kampf.’ New York Times, p. C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Festing and Fisher 2000; Schiermeier 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Festing and Fisher 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Gaensler et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
ISSN (print)0119-5646
ISSN (online)2243-7908

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