How to format your references using the The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nosonovsky, M. (2011). Materials science: slippery when wetted. Nature, 477(7365), 412–413.
A journal article with 2 authors
Papavasiliou, F. N., & Schatz, D. G. (2000). Cell-cycle-regulated DNA double-stranded breaks in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Nature, 408(6809), 216–221.
A journal article with 3 authors
Warrick, D. R., Tobalske, B. W., & Powers, D. R. (2005). Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird. Nature, 435(7045), 1094–1097.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dai, L., Wang, L., Deng, L., Liu, J., Lei, J., Li, D., & He, J. (2014). Novel multiarm polyethylene glycol-dihydroartemisinin conjugates enhancing therapeutic efficacy in non-small-cell lung cancer. Scientific reports, 4, 5871.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voigtman, E. (2017). Limits of Detection in Chemical Analysis. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Furuichi, T., & Thompson, J. (Eds.). (2008). The Bonobos: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Deng, X. (2011). SEDE: A Schema Explorer and Data Extractor for HTML Web Pages. In M. Zhu (Ed.), Information and Management Engineering: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011. Proceedings, Part VI (pp. 26–33). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, August 8). Human Brains Are Structurally The Same As Non-Human Primate Brains. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Opportunities for Improving Federally Assisted Manpower Programs Identified as a Result of Review in the Atlanta, Georgia, Area (No. B-146879). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darvish, H. (2015). Smart Power Grid Synchronization with Nonlinear Estimation (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, July 28). Where Charlotte and Jane Meet. New York Times, p. BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nosonovsky 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Nosonovsky 2011; Papavasiliou and Schatz 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Papavasiliou and Schatz 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Dai et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
ISSN (print)0119-5646
ISSN (online)2243-7908

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