How to format your references using the The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilson, T. L. (2001). The search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Nature, 409(6823), 1110–1114.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hammock, E. A. D., & Young, L. J. (2005). Microsatellite instability generates diversity in brain and sociobehavioral traits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5728), 1630–1634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moellering, E. R., Muthan, B., & Benning, C. (2010). Freezing tolerance in plants requires lipid remodeling at the outer chloroplast membrane. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6001), 226–228.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Niederländer, C., Walsh, J. J., Episkopou, V., & Jones, C. M. (2001). Arkadia enhances nodal-related signalling to induce mesendoderm. Nature, 410(6830), 830–834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holzer, S. M. (2015). Statische Beurteilung Historischer Tragwerke. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kurosu, M. (Ed.). (2015). Human-Computer Interaction: Users and Contexts: 17th International Conference, HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part III (Vol. 9171). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Turner, B. (2007). Nobel Peace Prize Winners: 1982–2006. In B. Turner (Ed.), The Statesman’s Yearbook 2008: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World (pp. 12–12). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 24). Milky Way’s Black Hole Is Unusually “Chatty.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Air Force Supply: Management Actions Create Spare Parts Shortages and Operations Problems (No. NSIAD/AIMD-99-77). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rawashdeh, M. Y. (2013). A Relational Framework for Clustering and Cluster Validity and the Generalization of the Silhouette Measure (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, April 7). Décolletage Is Not the Rage At This Victoria’s Secret. New York Times, p. 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilson 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hammock and Young 2005; Wilson 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hammock and Young 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Niederländer et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
ISSN (print)0119-5646
ISSN (online)2243-7908

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