How to format your references using the The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. (2002). Cell biology gets plugged in. Nature, 417(6892), 6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao, X., & Wang, K. (2014). Strength of stick-slip and creeping subduction megathrusts from heat flow observations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6200), 1038–1041.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amorisco, N. C., Evans, N. W., & van de Ven, G. (2014). The remnant of a merger between two dwarf galaxies in Andromeda II. Nature, 507(7492), 335–337.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rasmann, S., Köllner, T. G., Degenhardt, J., Hiltpold, I., Toepfer, S., Kuhlmann, U., et al. (2005). Recruitment of entomopathogenic nematodes by insect-damaged maize roots. Nature, 434(7034), 732–737.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cannataro, M., & Guzzi, P. H. (2011). Data Management of Protein Interaction Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rehm, G., & Uszkoreit, H. (Eds.). (2012). The Finnish Language in the Digital Age. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kunihiro, N. (2015). An Improved Attack for Recovering Noisy RSA Secret Keys and Its Countermeasure. In M.-H. Au & A. Miyaji (Eds.), Provable Security: 9th International Conference, ProvSec 2015, Kanazawa, Japan, November 24-26, 2015, Proceedings (pp. 61–81). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 1). Geometry Allows Stem Cells To Organize, Differentiate Naturally. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Financial Literacy: Overview of Federal Activities, Programs, and Challenges (No. GAO-14-556T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Benware, A. (2017). The Roles of Teaching Experience and Authoritative Classroom Management Style on Student Discipline (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Currie, A., & Hay, G. (2010, November 5). Protracted Wait for G.M. Payback. New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gao and Wang 2014; Gershon 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gao and Wang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Rasmann et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
ISSN (print)0119-5646
ISSN (online)2243-7908

Other styles