How to format your references using the The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2011). Dementia: a problem for our age. Nature, 475(7355), S2-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, G., & Smolin, J. A. (2013). An exactly solvable model for quantum communications. Nature, 504(7479), 263–267.
A journal article with 3 authors
Navrotsky, A., Mazeina, L., & Majzlan, J. (2008). Size-driven structural and thermodynamic complexity in iron oxides. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5870), 1635–1638.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Truscott, A. G., Strecker, K. E., McAlexander, W. I., Partridge, G. B., & Hulet, R. G. (2001). Observation of Fermi pressure in a gas of trapped atoms. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5513), 2570–2572.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazze, R. S., Strock, E. S., Simonson, G. D., & Bergenstal, R. M. (2006). Staged Diabetes Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Singh, M., Bisht, I. S., & Dutta, M. (Eds.). (2014). Broadening the Genetic Base of Grain Legumes. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Xiao, J. (2014). Logistics Development in Fujian Province. In B.-L. Liu, S.-J. Lee, L. Wang, Y. Xu, & X. Li (Eds.), Contemporary Logistics in China: Assimilation and Innovation (pp. 85–108). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, August 24). Extinct Kitten-Sized Marsupial Lion Named After David Attenborough. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Head Start: An Effective Program but the Fund Distribution Formula Needs Revision and Management Controls Need Improvement (No. HRD-81-83). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowry, L. A. (2017). Creative Aging in Senior Centers: A Grounded Theory Study (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015, September 2). Puerto Rico Electric Utility Is Said to Be Near Debt Deal. New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2011; Smith and Smolin 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Smolin 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Truscott et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
ISSN (print)0119-5646
ISSN (online)2243-7908

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